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Article

Rosemarie Bergmann

(b Paderborn, 1502; d Soest, Westphalia, 1555–61).

German engraver, painter and designer. He was the most important graphic artist in Westphalia in the 16th century. His reputation rests largely on his ornamental designs, which make up about one third of his c. 300 engravings. They were principally intended as models for metalworkers but were also adapted by other craftsmen for such decorative arts as enamel, intarsia and book illustration. Aldegrever followed Dürer and the Nuremberg Little Masters, deriving models for his paintings and subject prints as well as a full repertory of Renaissance ornamental motifs: fig and Acanthus foliage, vases and cornucopia, combined with putti and satyrs, tritons, mermaids and dolphins, sphinxes, masks and medallions. From the beginning of his career Aldegrever was aware of the artistic trends of the time: the Dürer influence was strongest at its outset yielding somewhat in work of the 1530s to Mannerist tendencies under Netherlandish influence, though never waning entirely.

Aldegrever was the son of Hermann Trippenmeker (...

Article

Christian Dittrich

(b Sangerhausen, July 30, 1641; d Dresden, May 29, 1706).

German painter, draughtsman, graphic artist and writer on art. He was a son and pupil of Andreas Bottschild II (c. 1590–1657), a painter and engraver, who decorated churches in Sangerhausen. Samuel had further training with his brother Johann Andreas Bottschild (b 1630; d after 1670), with whom he went to Saxony. In 1658–61 they worked jointly on gallery paintings of 19 scenes from the Passion (heavily restored 1852) in the Dorfkirche at Hohnstädt, near Leipzig. The decorations for the banqueting hall of Schloss Rötha, near Leipzig (c. 1668–70; destr.), were Bottschild’s first complete programme of mythological themes. At Rötha he also completed two group portraits of the female and male lines of the Friesen family (Dresden, Inst. Dkmlpf.)

In 1673 Bottschild painted a Presentation in the Temple for Freiberg Cathedral. It was probably after this that he left for Italy with his cousin and pupil ...

Article

(b Topeka, KS, April 27, 1899; d Nashville, TN, Feb 3, 1979).

American painter and illustrator. He was a leading artist of the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s and 1930s (see African American art §I 2.). He studied at the University of Nebraska and then in Paris with Charles Despiau and Othon Friesz (1925–31). Douglas was the earliest African American artist consciously to include African imagery in his work, which emphasized the creativity and continuity of African American culture, despite slavery and segregation. He was, however, criticized by his contemporaries for his idealism. In 1934, under the sponsorship of the Public Works of Art project (see United States of America, §XII), he designed a number of murals, including four panels depicting Aspects of Negro Life for the Schomburg Library in Harlem (New York, Pub. Lib.); this work and such others as Judgment Day (1939; USA, priv. col., see exh. cat., no. 99) and Building More Stately Mansions...

Article

German, 17th century, male.

Active in Nuremberg.

Painter. Topographical views.

Article

Kurt Löcher

(b c. 1495–1500; d after 1541).

German painter. On 12 January 1521 he received citizenship of Nuremberg, where he is thought to have studied under Wolf Traut. Like Traut, he used an austere graphic line and dry, bright colours. While in Nuremberg he painted a Portrait of a Man (1523; Heidelberg, Kurpfälz. Mus.; stolen 1974) and a portrait of Hans Geyer (1524; Raleigh, NC Mus. A.). By 1527 he was working for Kasimir, Markgraf zu Brandenburg-Kulmbach, Burgrave of Nuremberg (1481–1527); he later painted a memorial picture of the Margrave with his wife Susanna (untraced; copy, Heilbronn, Protestant Pfarrkirche). When Susanna then married Otto Henry, the future Elector Palatine, in 1529, Gertner went with her to the court of Neuburg an der Donau. A portrait of her (c. 1530; Berchtesgaden, Schlossmus.) was followed by portraits of Otto Henry and other members of the house of Wittelsbach (1531–9; mostly in Munich, Bayer. Nmus.) which took ‘maister Peter, Hofmaller’ to various German courts. That of ...

Article

German, 17th century, male.

Activec.1640.

Painter.

Heins provided several portraits for the Chalcographic Library by Jean-Jacques Boissard.

Article

Paul Hogarth

(b Kotagiri, Madras, India, March 13, 1836; d London, Nov 25, 1875).

English painter and illustrator. He played a leading role in the renaissance of wood-engraved illustration during the so-called golden decade of English book illustration (c. 1860–75), when a new school of artists overcame the limitations of the medium. Deeply influenced by the idealism of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, he imbued both his paintings and drawings with a haunting blend of poetic realism. He was the fourth son of Captain John Michael Houghton (1797–1874), who served in the East India Company’s Marine as a draughtsman.

Houghton was admitted to the Royal Academy Schools, London, in 1854 but did not pass further than the Life School. He received additional training at J. M. Leigh’s academy and its convivial corollary, the Langham Artists’ Society, which was then a forcing-house for young impoverished painters who wished to have a foot in both publishing and the fine arts. There, with older artists such as Charles Keene and John Tenniel, he learnt to run the race against time with a set weekly subject. Keene, already a well-known contributor to ...

Article

(b Dieppe, c. 1533; d London, before June 1, 1588).

French painter, illustrator and explorer, also active in Florida and England. In April 1564 he sailed with René de Laudonnière as artist of the Huguenot expedition to Florida. In September 1565 the Spaniards overran the colony, but he escaped and returned to France. By c. 1580 he had settled in Blackfriars, London, ‘for religion’ and received letters of denization on 12 May 1581. He later came into contact with Sir Walter Ralegh and his colonizing circle and with John White, the artist of the first English colony of Virginia, with whom he exchanged ideas and perhaps collaborated. Ralegh commissioned him to illustrate the Florida enterprise, and Le Moyne produced an account Brevis narratio eorum quae in Florida … acciderunt … auctore Iacobo le Moyne with 42 illustrations and a map that Theodor de Bry published in Frankfurt am Main in 1591 as the second part of his Collectiones perigrinationum in Indiam orientalem et occidentalem...

Article

Christian Klemm

(b Frankfurt am Main, May 12, 1606; d Nuremberg, Oct 14, 1688).

German painter and writer. A leading figure in 17th-century German painting, he is chiefly famed for his biographical writings in the Teutsche Academie. His great-nephew, an engraver who died young in London, also bore the name Joachim von Sandrart (1668–91).

Sandrart came from a family of Calvinist refugees from Wallonia. After initial lessons in drawing with Georg Keller and Sebastian Stoskopff (1597–1657), he began an apprenticeship in engraving in 1620 with Peter Isselburg in Nuremberg. In 1622 he went to Prague for more advanced tuition with Aegidius Sadeler II, who advised him to turn to painting. He accordingly apprenticed himself to Gerrit van Honthorst in Utrecht. Here, in 1627, he met Peter Paul Rubens, whom he accompanied on a journey through Holland. In 1628 he went with Honthorst to the English court. In 1629 Sandrart travelled via Venice and Florence to Rome. Here he initially became friendly with Domenichino; his acquaintance included both northerners—Claude Lorrain, Nicolas Poussin, François Du Quesnoy, Pieter van Laer—and Italians—Pietro da Cortona, Andrea Sacchi and Pietro Testa. From ...

Article

Feliciano Benvenuti

(b Vicenza, fl late 16th century–early 17th).

Italian painter and printmaker. There is little biographical information about him. His birthplace has been inferred from the signature giosepe. scolari. vecentino. f. on the print of the Man of Sorrows. He was a member of the Arte dei Depentori in Venice between 1592 and 1607. He has been generally considered as a pupil of the painter Giambattista Maganza (c. 1509–86) of Vicenza, although according to others he was a disciple of the Mannerist Giovanni Demio or of Paolo Veronese. Famous in Vicenza for his grisaille frescoes, he also created pictorial works recorded in Venice, as well as at Padua and Verona. Among the Venetian works were four paintings originally in the presbytery of the church of S Luca: a Chastisement of the Serpents, which was executed ‘for nothing, in his youth, in order to make himself known’ (Della pittura veneziana, i (Venice, 1797), p. 295), in S Giovanni Elemosinario; a ...

Article

Jane S. Peters

[Hans]

(fl Nuremberg, 1590; d Nuremberg, March 23, 1611).

German painter, etcher and graphic artist. He became a master sometime before 1597, but his activity as a painter was probably confined to painting coats of arms, not panels. In 1601, in a petition to Emperor Rudolf II, he identified himself as an etcher and citizen of Nuremberg. He must have conducted an active print workshop, because he produced over 7000 etchings. The earliest dated, monogrammed print is 1590. The subjects of his prints range from portraits, genealogical trees, warfare scenes, city views and maps to series of hunts, the months, coats of arms and ornaments. Among them are designs borrowed from such artists as Jost Amman, Jacques Androuet Du Cerceau and Enea Vico. His penchant for ornament is reflected in his two most enduring graphic projects, needlework patterns and heraldry. His two needlework books (1597, 1604) replaced their cumbersome woodcut predecessors with delicate tonal etchings and are considered among the best of their genre. His ...

Article

J. P. Filedt Kok

[Aert Claessoon; Aernt Claesz.]

(b Leiden, 1498; d Leiden, 1564).

Dutch painter, draughtsman and designer of stained glass. Van Mander’s extensive biographical account forms the basis of knowledge of the life and work of this otherwise elusive artist. According to him, Aertgen was the son of a Leiden ‘fuller’ or cloth finisher, but in 1516 he chose to become a painter and apprenticed himself to Cornelis Engebrechtsz. Van Mander describes the uneven quality and vast stylistic changes within Aertgen’s work: at first he painted in the style of his master, then he was influenced by Jan van Scorel and later by Maarten van Heemskerck. Van Mander further reports that Aertgen’s paintings represented mainly biblical stories from the Old and New Testament and that they were often beautifully composed, though painted in a ‘loose and unpleasant manner’. Leiden city records confirm that a painter called Aert Claesz. was working in Leiden between 1521 and 1564 and living, as van Mander states, on the Zijdegracht (at least in ...

Article

Dutch, 17th century, male.

Born c. 1618, in Dordrecht (?); died after 1668 or 1678.

Painter. Portraits, genre scenes, still-lifes.

Pieter Harmensz. Verelst's biographical details are uncertain. We are unsure of the date of his birth, the date of his death and the actual details of his life. Certain biographers say that he was the pupil of Gérard Dou, but this opinion does not seem to be generally held by modern critics. He is first mentioned on 12 July 1638 in the guild at Dordrecht, where he married in 1640. He may have lived in Antwerp, and in 1643, he is mentioned as coming to The Hague, where in 1656 he was one of the founders of its guild. In 1668, he left The Hague; it is believed he wanted to escape his creditors. There is no mention of him after this date....

Article

Paola Pacht Bassani

(b Tours, May 19, 1593; d Paris, May 10, 1670).

French painter, printmaker and illustrator . Born into a prosperous family in Tours, he received his early training in Paris, probably in Jacob Bunel’s studio. In 1609–10 he travelled to Rome; although his presence there is recorded only in 1618–20, he was probably based there throughout that decade, becoming a member of the community of young French artists that included Simon Vouet and Valentin de Boullogne. They were all predominantly influenced by the art of Caravaggio and of his most direct follower Bartolomeo Manfredi. Vignon’s severe half-length figures (St Paul, Turin, Gal. Sabauda; Four Church Fathers, on loan to Cambridge, Fitzwilliam), executed possibly even earlier than 1615, are in a Caravaggesque style, as are his paintings of singers, musicians and drinkers (e.g. the Young Singer, Paris, Louvre), although the latter group owes more to the style of contemporary genre painting. However, Vignon was already showing an interest in new artistic experiments, the origins of which were northern, Venetian and Mannerist. His sensitivity to the splendid colouring of Venice and to the art of Jacques Bellange, Georges Lallemand and Jacques Callot is manifest in his ...