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Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 26 August 1882, in Berlin; died 4 July 1939, in Berlin.

Draughtsman, illustrator, poster artist, caricaturist.

Symbolism, Jugendstil.

Hermann Abeking was still very much influenced by the Jugendstil, and particularly by Aubrey Beardsley and Jan Toorop. He worked on several German magazines, including the ...

Article

Phillip Dennis Cate

[Georges] (Hulot)

(b Beauvais, April 26, 1863; d Paris, Feb 6, 1938).

French illustrator, typographical designer, writer and printmaker . He went to Paris in 1883 to pursue a literary career. His first humorous essays were published that year in the Chat Noir journal. He was introduced to the many avant-garde artists and writers who frequented the Chat Noir cabaret in Montmartre and contributed to the journal. Of these Henri Rivière and Eugène Grasset were especially important to his artistic development, Rivière coaching Auriol in drawing while Grasset introduced him to typographical design. Auriol’s close association with Rivière culminated in the latter’s album of lithographs, Les Trente-six Vues de la Tour Eiffel (1902; for illustration see Japonisme), for which Auriol designed the decorative cover, end-papers and typography.

Auriol served as writer, illustrator and editor of the Chat Noir for ten years (1883–93). He produced book covers for the Chat-Noir Guide (1888) and the two-volume Les Contes du Chat Noir...

Article

Hungarian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 16 April 1873, in Budapest.

Painter, draughtsman, illustrator, poster artist.

Art Nouveau.

Arpad Basch studied with Karlovsky in 1873 at the school of arts and crafts in Budapest, then in Munich with Hollósy, and in Paris with Léon Bonnat and Jean Paul Laurens....

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 14 April 1868, in Hamburg; died 27 February 1940, in Berlin.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver, architect, designer, decorative artist, graphic designer. Posters, furniture, wallpaper, carpets, glassware, ceramics, table services, jewellery, silverwork, objets d'art, typefaces.

Jugendstil, functional school.

Die Sieben (Group of Seven), Deutscher Werkbund...

Article

Iain Boyd Whyte

(b Hamburg, April 14, 1868; d Berlin, Feb 27, 1940).

German architect, designer and painter. Progressing from painting and graphics to product design and architecture, Behrens achieved his greatest successes with his work for the Allgemeine Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft (AEG), in which he reconciled the Prussian Classicist tradition with the demands of industrial fabrication.

After attending the Realgymnasium in Altona, he began his painting studies in 1886 at the Kunstakademie in Karlsruhe. From there he moved to Düsseldorf, where he studied with Ferdinand Brütt. In December 1889 Behrens married Lilli Krämer, and the following year the couple moved to Munich, where he continued his studies with Hugo Kotschenreiter (1854–1908). Behrens was one of the founder-members of the Munich Secession (see Secession, §1) in 1893 and, shortly afterwards, a founder of the more progressive Freie Vereinigung Münchener Künstler, with Otto Eckmann, Max Slevogt, Wilhelm Trübner and Lovis Corinth. He also joined the circle associated with the magazine Pan, which included Otto Julius Bierbaum, Julius Meier-Graefe, Franz Blei, Richard Dehmel and Otto Eckmann....

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Active in the USA.

Born 15 March 1883, in Stuttgart; died 29 May 1972, in New York.

Painter, sculptor, graphic designer, poster artist, illustrator, architect, designer, decorative artist. Designs for carpets, advertising art, furniture, lamps, wallpaper.

Jugendstil.

Deutscher Werkbund.

Lucian Bernhard studied painting at the Kunstakademie in Munich, but taught himself design. He was active in Berlin. In ...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active also active in Japan.

Born 1860, in Paris; died 1927.

Painter, engraver (etching), illustrator, poster artist.

Japonisme, Art Nouveau.

At a very young age, Georges Ferdinand Bigot trained under Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824-1904) and Carolus-Durand (1837-1917) at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He learnt etching with Félix Buhot and collaborated on the journal ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 10 July 1868, in Boston; died 1962, in New Jersey.

Draughtsman, illustrator, poster artist. Toys.

Art Nouveau.

Will Bradley was the son of a caricaturist who worked on the Daily Item, a newspaper published in Lynn, Massachusetts. At the age of 12, he became apprentice to a printer and then began drawing and illustrating, making this his full-time occupation ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 3 September 1878, in Strasbourg; died 18 April 1947, in Munich.

Painter, graphic designer, draughtsman, interior designer, illustrator, engraver (wood). Designs for tapestries, ex-libris plates, posters, designs (wallpaper/jewellery).

Jugendstil.

Die Sieben (Group of Seven). Darmstadt Artists' Colony.

Paul Bürck was apprenticed to a decorative painter in Munich, and was also able to attend the Kunstgewerbeschule (school of industrial art and design). He was one of the first artists to be invited to the Mathildenhöhe artists' colony in Darmstadt between ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active also active in France.

Born 6 March 1866, in Flensburg; died 5 January 1945, in Wiesbaden.

Painter, engraver, draughtsman, decorative designer, graphic designer. Portraits, landscapes, urban landscapes, still-lifes, flowers, decorative motifs. Designs for carpets, designs (furniture/posters/jewellery/book-binding).

Jugendstil.

Die Sieben (Group of Seven)...

Article

Austrian, 20th century, male.

Active in Germany.

Born 23 September 1875, in Vienna.

Draughtsman, engraver, poster artist.

Jugendstil.

Franz Christophe came from a French family. He lived in Munich initially, and then in Berlin. He worked on numerous magazines, such as Jugend, Simplicissimus, Narrenschiff and ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 22 January 1873, in Danzig (now Gdansk); died 23 December 1942, in Frankfurt am Main.

Painter, engraver, draughtsman, illustrator, graphic designer, interior designer. History painting, portraits, landscapes. Posters, designs (furniture/jewellery).

Jugendstil.

Darmstadt Artists' Colony.

Johann Vincenz Cissarz trained at the Dresden academy between ...

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1869, in Antwerp; died 1941, in Brussels.

Painter, sculptor, illustrator, poster artist. Religious subjects, portraits, landscapes.

Art Nouveau.

Having first studied law, Ghisbert Combaz became a pupil at the academy in Antwerp and a professor at the Brussels academy. He spent most of his life in Antwerp, where he exhibited from 1886 onwards; he also exhibited in conjunction with the association of Art Nouveau artists known as the Libre Esthétique from 1897. As an art historian, he made special study of the art of the Far East. With their sinuous and undulating rhythm, the arabesques in his engravings and posters provide typical examples of the Modern Style....

Article

Christopher Newall

(b Liverpool, Aug 15, 1845; d Horsham, W. Sussex, March 14, 1915).

English painter, illustrator, designer, writer and teacher. He showed artistic inclinations as a boy and was encouraged to draw by his father, the portrait painter and miniaturist Thomas Crane (1808–59). A series of illustrations to Tennyson’s The Lady of Shalott (Cambridge, MA, Harvard U., Houghton Lib.) was shown first to Ruskin, who praised the use of colour, and then to the engraver William James Linton, to whom Crane was apprenticed in 1859. From 1859 to 1862 Crane learnt a technique of exact and economical draughtsmanship on woodblocks. His early illustrative works included vignette wood-engravings for John R. Capel Wise’s The New Forest: Its History and its Scenery (1862).

During the mid-1860s Crane evolved his own style of children’s book illustration. These so-called ‘toy books’, printed in colour by Edmund Evans, included The History of Jenny Wren and The Fairy Ship. Crane introduced new levels of artistic sophistication to the art of illustration: after ...

Article

Laurie A. Stein

(b Hamburg, Nov 19, 1865; d Badenweiler, June 11, 1902).

German designer, illustrator and painter. He trained as a businessman before entering the Kunst- und Gewerbeschule in Hamburg. He studied at the Kunst- und Gewerbeschule in Nuremberg and from 1885 attended the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich. His early paintings are naturalistic landscapes but around 1890 he shifted towards Symbolism (e.g. the Four Ages of Life, 1893–4; untraced). In 1894 he decided to devote himself to the decorative arts. Encouraged by Justus Brinckmann, a collector and museum director, and Friedrich Deneken (later Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Museum, Krefeld), Eckmann studied the Japanese woodcut collection at the Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg. Using traditional Japanese techniques, he began producing his own woodcut designs in 1895. Three Swans on Dark Water (1895; Hamburg, Mus. Kst & Gew.) reflects a general preoccupation with late 19th-century music, art and literature with swans as symbolic images, and they were a frequent motif in many of his subsequent works. Eckmann’s woodcuts, as well as ornamental borders, vignettes, bookplates and other graphic designs, were illustrated in such periodicals as ...

Article

(b Frankenstein nr Breslau [now Wroclaw], Dec 15, 1868; d Munich, 1940).

German painter, illustrator and interior designer. He studied at the Kunstschule in Breslau under the German painter Albrecht Bräuer (1830–97), and later at the Pinakothek in Munich, absorbing the work of the Old Masters. He continued his training in Paris at the Académie Julian (1892–4), and established a studio in Munich (1895). With other non-academic painters of the period he rejected the influence of the French Impressionists and allied with the Symbolist painters of the late 19th century. He drew inspiration from wild places and as a young man travelled to the Baltic Sea and to the Riviera and Brittany coasts. He was fascinated by Norse legends, Grimms’ fairy tales and Johann Gottfried Herder’s Stimmen der Völker, all of which had an impact on his subject-matter. His early paintings of bucolic landscapes with figures were executed in flat, calm colours with well-defined outlines, reminiscent of the work of Pierre Puvis de Chavannes. In a long, prolific career he designed costumes and stage sets, stained glass, ceramics and bookbindings....

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 21 May 1869, in Dillingen; died 17 April 1934, in Landsberg am Lech.

Painter (including porcelain), engraver, sculptor, graphic designer. Landscapes. Designs (metal objects/ceramics).

Jugendstil.

Very little is known about Hermann Gradl Sr, the elder brother of Max Joseph Gradl. He was first a painter and then a sculptor. He attended the Kunstgewerbeschule (school of arts and crafts) in Munich between ...

Article

Phillip Dennis Cate

(b Lausanne, May 25, 1841; d Paris, Oct 23, 1917).

French illustrator, decorative artist and printmaker of Swiss birth. Before arriving in Paris in the autumn of 1871, Grasset had been apprenticed to an architect, attended the Polytechnic in Zurich and travelled to Egypt. In Paris he found employment as a fabric designer and graphic ornamentalist, which culminated in his first important project, the illustrations for Histoire des quatre fils Aymon (1883). Grasset worked in collaboration with Charles Gillot, the inventor of photo-relief printing and an influential collector of Oriental and decorative arts, in the production of this major work of Art Nouveau book design and of colour photomechanical illustration. Grasset used a combination of medieval and Near Eastern decorative motifs to frame and embellish his illustrations, but most importantly he integrated text and imagery in an innovative manner which has had a lasting influence on book illustration.

In 1881 he was commissioned by Rodolphe Salis to design furnishing in a medieval style for the latter’s new Chat Noir cabaret in Montmartre. This project brought him in direct contact with Montmartre avant-garde artists such as Adolphe Willette, Théophile-Alexandre Steinlen, Henri Rivière and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. Grasset’s numerous posters include ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active from 1933 in Sweden.

Born 28 February 1867, in Leipzig; died 26 January 1948, in Stockholm.

Sculptor, painter, draughtsman, engraver, caricaturist, illustrator, poster artist. Portraits, scenes with figures, landscapes.

Jugendstil.

Thomas Theodor Heine was a student of Carl Janssen at the Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf. He settled in Munich in 1889. Here he formed an association with a group of painters which included Lovis Corinth, Ludwig Dill and Wilhelm Trübner, who used to meet during the summer in Dachau, a town near Munich, which became a sort of German Barbizon, where painting was done in the open air. In 1892, he brought out his first cartoon in the weekly ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 27 July 1874, in Wiesbaden; died 15 September 1949, in Berchtesgaden.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, poster artist, interior designer. Figures, landscapes, animals. Designs (ceramics).

Jugendstil.

Ludwig Hohlwein began drawing illustrations and making models of jewellery and bookbindings, parallel to his architectural studies, which he began in ...