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Article

(Isayevich)

(b Vinnitsa, Ukraine, Dec 22, 1889; d Leningrad [now St Petersburg], Dec 12, 1970).

Russian painter, graphic artist, sculptor and designer of Ukrainian birth. He studied painting at the School of Art in Odessa (1901–7) under Kiriak Kostandi (1852–1921), at the same time attending classes in sculpture. In 1908–9 he made a series of pointillist paintings. He visited Vienna and Munich in 1910 before going to Paris, where he worked at Vasil’yeva’s Free Russian Academy until 1912, producing paintings on Jewish themes and studying Cubism. In 1912 he went to St Petersburg, where he painted a number of Cubist portraits, for example of the poet Anna Akhmatova (1914; St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.). His Cubist work makes much use of faceting and transparent planes. From 1918 to 1921 he taught at the Department of Visual Arts (IZO) of Narkompros in Petrograd, but he was criticized for his attempts to identify Futurism with the art of the proletariat. Al’tman became well known as the designer of post-Revolutionary mass parades and monuments, for example the celebration of the first anniversary of the Revolution on ...

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 1954, in Villecresnes (Essonne).

Painter (gouache), pastellist, sculptor. Frescoes, monuments.

Lydie Arickx was a pupil at the college of graphic arts in Paris from 1974 to 1978. Line and colour combine in her work to produce violent Expressionism, at times bordering on cruelty, even in love, though all she is seeking in the figures she portrays, flayed alive, is their spirit, as she herself asserts. Her work shows the influence of Egon Schiele, Otto Dix and Georges Grosz, but above all, especially in her use of pastel, of Francis Bacon and Luis Cabellero. In ...

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 5 December 1969, in Aix-en-Provence.

Painter, sculptor.

After studying in Tunisia, and having participated in several theatrical and cinematographic activities, Marie Ophélie Asselin de Williencourt settled in France in 1988. In 1991 and 1922, she pursued her studies at the Versailles École des Beaux-Arts. She was a founder member of the association ...

Article

R. Siva Kumar

(b Bankura, May 25, 1906; d Calcutta, Aug 2, 1980).

Indian sculptor and painter . The example of rural craftsmen inspired him to paint curtains for village theatre and posters for the nationalist demonstrations before he was taken in 1925 to the art college at Santiniketan in West Bengal by the nationalist leader, publisher and patron Ramananda Chatterjee (1865–1943). He was initially influenced by Abanindranath Tagore and Nandalal Bose but soon developed an individual perception and a keen interest in sculpture. His early outdoor sculptures, such as Sujata (1935), Santal Family (1939) and the Lamp Stand (1940), were made in situ in Santiniketan in concrete and were environmental in scale and theme.

Although best known for his sculpture, as a painter Baij, along with Benode Behari Mukherjee, was one of the first Indian artists to show a deep understanding of modern Western art. In the late 1930s and early 1940s he made reference in his formal language to Post-Impressionism, Cubism and Futurism, although he consistently derived his imagery from immediate visual experience. The combination of these influences with his natural ...

Article

Nelly Perazzo

(b Torroella de Montgri, Catalonia, March 3, 1911; d Buenos Aires, Oct 8, 1966).

Argentine painter, printmaker, illustrator, sculptor and stage designer of Spanish Catalan birth. He arrived in Buenos Aires in 1913. Although his uncle, José Planas Casas (b Catalonia, 1900; d Argentina, 1960), taught him the rudiments of art, he was basically self-taught and began to exhibit his work in 1934. Synthesizing ideas from Zen philosophy, psychoanalysis and the theories on cosmic energy espoused by the Austrian psychologist Wilhelm Reich with his interests in automatism, poetry and painting, he found a creative sense of direction from an early age. He applied his methods not only to paintings but to stage designs, illustrations, collages, prints, polychrome sculptures and boxlike constructions; as a painter he worked both in tempera and in oil, and he also produced 72 murals.

In 1936 Batlle Planas inaugurated a Surrealist phase with a series entitled Paranoiac X-rays, followed by another group of pictures, Tibetan Series, populated by spectral figures related to works by Yves Tanguy. Between ...

Article

Valerie Holman

(b Mennecy, Seine-et-Oise, Feb 3, 1895; d Paris, June 6, 1979).

French painter, sculptor, draughtsman, graphic artist, ceramicist and tapestry designer. He attended the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs, Paris, from 1911, until he joined the army in 1915. After World War I he devoted himself primarily to painting. In 1922 he met Juan Gris with whose encouragement his early Matisse-influenced rhythmical compositions acquired greater stability. In the late 1920s he was promoted by Tériade as a successor to the Cubists, with such works as The Mirror (1929; Paris, Pompidou), in which a highly simplified figure and its mirror-image are defined by patches of flat colour and fragments of linear contrast, and by the 1940s he was seen as one of the major representatives of the Ecole de Paris. In the 1950s his earlier predilection for curvilinear shapes gave way to a more angular and dynamic geometry, as in the First Race (1952; Paris, Pompidou). His subject-matter was taken from daily life, with marked preferences for the nude in movement, as in ...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1928, in Colognola ai Colli, near Verona.

Painter, engraver, graphic designer, fresco artist, sculptor. Religious subjects. Designs for stained glass.

Bellomi studied initially at the Cignaroli Academy in Verona. After World War II, he worked as a coal miner in St-Étienne in France. However, he spent most of his life in Verona where, ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Active in the USA.

Born 15 March 1883, in Stuttgart; died 29 May 1972, in New York.

Painter, sculptor, graphic designer, poster artist, illustrator, architect, designer, decorative artist. Designs for carpets, advertising art, furniture, lamps, wallpaper.

Jugendstil.

Deutscher Werkbund.

Lucian Bernhard studied painting at the Kunstakademie in Munich, but taught himself design. He was active in Berlin. In ...

Article

Jure Mikuž

(b Gunclje, nr Ljubljana, Sept 6, 1933).

Slovenian painter, printmaker, sculptor, illustrator and poet. He graduated from the Academy of Fine Arts, Ljubljana, in 1955 and later received his MFA in painting and engraving. He continued his studies in 1959 with Johnny Friedlaender in Paris. After 1970 he taught painting at the Ljubljana Academy. He was one of the most outstanding Yugoslav artists after the early 1960s and won several major international awards, including the Grand Prix of the Tokyo, Ljubljana and São Paulo biennales of graphic art.

Bernik’s early works, such as his series of flat picture surfaces, Magmas, Quarries and Burnt Soil, were influenced by Art informel. In the mid-1960s Bernik was an important exponent of the type of European painting based on the use of words. The Great Letter (1964; Ljubljana, Gal. Mod. A.) combines the devices and texture of Art informel with evocations of Byzantine religious texts. At the same time he was also painting pictures with sensually explicit, almost sculpturally or haptically modelled traditional iconographic objects such as the apple, table and cloth, or bread, or pictures in which a written-out word with its meaning was a substitute for a certain object. Here he was responding to European Nouveau Réalisme, Pop art and conceptualism, and the work of Francis Bacon. In the late 1970s Bernik again dispensed with the object in his pictures, producing a series of abstract paintings entitled ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 5 February 1902, in Mestry (Calvados); died 23 April 1982, in Rochefort-en-Yvelines.

Painter (gouache), sculptor, draughtsman, engraver, newspaper cartoonist, humorist artist, poster artist, illustrator, writer. Landscapes with figures, landscapes, village views. Advertising art.

Georges Pierre Beuville studied in Paris at the École des Beaux-Arts and then at the École des Arts Décoratifs....

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 7 May 1941, in St-Raphaël.

Painter, graphic designer, illustrator, poster artist, sculptor. Designs for tapestries, stained glass windows, playing cards.

Bevilacqua lived in Africa in his youth. Self-taught, he only began to paint in 1983. In 1991 Bevilacqua realised in public a monumental painting on the subject of ...

Article

Hans Frei

(b Winterthur, Dec 22, 1908; d Zurich, Dec 9, 1994).

Swiss architect, sculptor, painter, industrial designer, graphic designer and writer. He attended silversmithing classes at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Zurich from 1924 to 1927. Then, inspired by the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes (1925), Paris, by the works of Le Corbusier and by a competition entry (1927) for the Palace of the League of Nations, Geneva, by Hannes Meyer and Hans Wittwer (1894–1952), he decided to become an architect and enrolled in the Bauhaus, Dessau, in 1927. He studied there for two years as a pupil of Josef Albers, László Moholy-Nagy, Paul Klee and Vasily Kandinsky, mainly in the field of ‘free art’. In 1929 he returned to Zurich. After working on graphic designs for the few modern buildings being constructed, he built his first work, his own house and studio (1932–3) in Zurich-Höngg; although this adheres to the principles of the new architecture, it retains echoes of the traditional, for example in the gently sloping saddle roof....

Article

Dutch, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in France since 1980.

Born 21 July 1951, in Haarlem.

Painter, engraver, sculptor. Figures.

Hans Bouman trained in illustration and advertising at the school of graphics in Amsterdam, then at the Gerrit Rietveldt Academie in Amsterdam (1973-1978). In parallel, he works for magazines and in advertising. In ...

Article

Cecilia Suárez

(b Quito, Sept 8, 1939).

Ecuadorean painter, graphic designer, sculptor, installation artist, architect and teacher. He studied architecture at the Universidad Nacional de Bogotá, Colombia. He worked for the Graham Foundation and the National Endowment for the Arts, Washington, DC, and received a grant to attend the Center for Advanced Visual Studies at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, where he worked with György Kepes. Later he became a professor at the arts faculty of the Universidad Central, Quito. Bueno worked first in graphic design before going on to experiment with the incorporation of technology into art, using laser beams, mechanical pumps, plastic, glass and such elements as water, fire and air, for example in 49 Tubes, exhibited at the Bienal de Arte Coltejer in Medellín in 1972. He also combined visual art with music in such works as Flame Orchards, with music by Paul Earls, which won joint first prize with Kepes in the same exhibition. Exploration into ecological and environmental art led him to experiment with the idea of an aerial view of the urban landscape incorporating military camouflage sheets....

Article

Julian Treuherz

(b Chester, March 22, 1846; d St Augustine, FL, Feb 12, 1886).

English illustrator, painter and sculptor. Caldecott worked as a bank clerk in Whitchurch and Manchester and attended evening classes at the Manchester School of Art. He moved to London in 1872 and studied briefly at the Slade School of Fine Art. Through the painter Thomas Armstrong, he was introduced to London editors and publishers. He collaborated with Armstrong and W. E. Nesfield on decorative paintings for aesthetic interiors, notably at Bank Hall (1872–3), Derbys. Caldecott was taught to model by Jules Dalou, later modelling the gilt capitals of birds for the Arab Hall (1877–9) at Leighton House, London. Outstanding among Caldecott’s work were his illustrations to Washington Irving’s books, such as Old Christmas (1875), and the jolly Christmas stories and illustrated letters from abroad commissioned by the Graphic. However, his reputation rests on the frequently reprinted series of 16 picture books for children published between ...

Article

Romanian, 20th century, female.

Active in Israel from 1972.

Born 28 September 1925, in Moreni.

Painter, sculptor, ceramicist. Landscapes. Statues, busts.

From 1942 to 1945, Eveline Linica Calin-Els studied painting and graphic arts in Bucharest. After 1945, she studied at the academy of fine arts in Bucharest, graduating in ...

Article

French, 19th–20th century, male.

Born 31 May 1836, in Paris; died 1932, in Nice.

Painter (gouache), pastellist, sculptor, engraver, lithographer, draughtsman, poster artist. Portraits, genre scenes, local scenes (carnival), flowers, landscapes.

Chéret created a genre, a new method of expression for poster art, and was the founder of a technique destined to set a trend. At the age of 13, he did an apprenticeship with a lithographer who employed him to design letters. But Chéret had other ambitions. He taught himself drawing, with only his very confident sense of taste and the very lively originality of his artistic temperament to guide him. At that time, he produced numerous lithographic vignettes for brochures or book covers. In 1856, Chéret went to England, where he studied new colour lithography techniques. He stayed in England for ten years, then returned to Paris and in 1866 established his printing works and launched his first two colour posters: ...

Article

Margarita González Arredondo

(b Mexico City, June 10, 1940).

Mexican painter, sculptor, illustrator and stage designer. He was self-taught when he took up painting in 1956 with the encouragement of Diego Rivera, but from 1956 to 1960 he studied graphic design with Gordon Jones. During those years he worked in an Abstract Expressionist manner, although he soon incorporated figurative elements and, from c. 1963, elements of fantasy. In 1967 he went to Paris on a French government grant. In the following year he was a founder-member of the Salón Independiente, where he began to exhibit acrylic sculptures of the female torso. These were followed between 1974 and 1976 by a series entitled Mutations, in which he explored the possibilities of the cube and which opened the way to later sculptures and paintings in which geometry is balanced with sensuality. Venus and Mars (Mexico City, U. N. Autónoma) is one of the best of his public sculptures. He also worked as a stage designer, for example on a production in ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 27 June 1892, in Nancy; died 18 June 1985, at the Fondation Smith-Champion (also known as La Maison des Artistes), in Nogent-sur-Marne.

Painter (gouache), poster artist, sculptor, designer. Figures, portraits. Groups.

Paul Colin studied at the college of fine arts in Nancy and went on to exhibit in London, New York, Liège, Vienna, Madrid and Barcelona (Premier Grand Prix) before starting to exhibit at the Salon d'Automne in Paris. His awards and distinctions include the Grand Prix at the colonial exhibition and elevation to the rank of Chevalier of the Légion d'Honneur. A Colin retrospective was held in 1949 at the museum of decorative arts in the Marsan pavilion at the Louvre. Colin also set up and ran an Académie Libre (free school)....

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1869, in Antwerp; died 1941, in Brussels.

Painter, sculptor, illustrator, poster artist. Religious subjects, portraits, landscapes.

Art Nouveau.

Having first studied law, Ghisbert Combaz became a pupil at the academy in Antwerp and a professor at the Brussels academy. He spent most of his life in Antwerp, where he exhibited from 1886 onwards; he also exhibited in conjunction with the association of Art Nouveau artists known as the Libre Esthétique from 1897. As an art historian, he made special study of the art of the Far East. With their sinuous and undulating rhythm, the arabesques in his engravings and posters provide typical examples of the Modern Style....