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Article

Silvia Lucchesi

[Marius Pictor]

(b Bologna, Sept 8, 1852; d Venice, March 18, 1924).

Italian painter, photographer, architect and illustrator. He trained initially as a musician and only later became a painter, studying (1872–8) at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Bologna under the history and portrait painter Antonio Puccinelli (1822–97). He made several short trips to Paris and London before moving to Rome where he became friends with Vincenzo Cabianca (1827–1902), a plein-air painter, and joined the group founded by Nino Costa, In Arte Libertas (see Rome, §III, 7). He made his name in 1885 when he exhibited 18 paintings at the group’s first exhibition. In the 1880s he experimented with photography, and in certain cases photographs acted as preliminary stages for his paintings. In 1892 he settled definitively in Venice and two years later adopted the pseudonym ‘Marius Pictor’. His work expressed the romantic and literary climate of the fin-de-siècle, and his painting is linked with the work of such writers as Charles Baudelaire and Edgar Allan Poe. De Maria’s work derives from flower painting and from the painting of Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps; brushstrokes are carefully built up, and rough, chalky colour is thickly applied. He was extremely skilful in his manipulation of colour and light to express the richness of his imagination. He liked to create evocative images and to represent the most fantastic and unusual aspects of nature, as in the famous painting the ...

Article

Czech, 20th century, male.

Born 3 March 1883, in Pribram; died 13 January 1961, in Prague.

Photographer, painter. Portraits, nudes. Photobooks, oil pigment photographic prints.

Modernist photography. Photopurism.

In Munich from 1901 to 1903, Drtikol attended the Lehr- und Versuchsanstalt für Photographie, where Pictorialism was influential. After three years of military service, he founded his own studio in Pribram in ...

Article

Mary Panzer

[Hiller, John Arthur; Hiller Sr, Lejaren]

(b Milwaukee, WI, 1880; d New York, 1969).

American photographer and illustrator. John Arthur Hiller worked for a Milwaukee lithographer as a teenager, before studying commercial illustration at the Art Institute of Chicago. It was in Chicago that he acquired his first camera and came up with his professional name, Lejaren à Hiller. By 1909 he had moved to New York and joined the New York Society of Illustrators, where his friends included artists Charles Gibson and John Sloan, as well as editors, art directors, and advertising agents. An avid amateur actor, Lejaren à Hiller staged pageants, artists’ balls, and charity events through the 1930s. In 1921 he married Sara Anita Plummer, his favourite model and a former Ziegfeld dancer.

Lejaren à Hiller’s first photography-based illustrations for fiction appeared in 1913. Over the next decade he combined stagecraft, casting, directing, and photographic technology to create convincing narrative illusions for the printed page. By the early 1920s (when Edward Steichen was just beginning his commercial career), his clients already included Corning Glass, Winchester Arms, and General Electric. He also made cover art for ...

Article

Julius Kaplan

(b nr Termonde, Sept 12, 1858; d Brussels, Nov 12, 1921).

Belgian painter, illustrator, sculptor, designer, photographer and writer. He was one of the foremost Symbolist artists and active supporters of avant-garde art in late 19th-century Belgium. His wealthy family lived in Bruges from 1859 to 1864, moved to Brussels in 1865, where Khnopff remained until his death, and spent their summers at a country home in Fosset, in the Ardennes. Fosset inspired numerous landscapes that owe a strong debt to Barbizon-style realism (see 1979 cat. rais., p. 210), which dominated advanced Belgian painting in the late 1870s. Khnopff abandoned law school in 1875, and, turning to literature and art, he studied with Xavier Mellery at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels. During visits to Paris (1877–80) he admired the work of Ingres and was especially attracted to the painterly art of Rubens, Rembrandt, the Venetian Renaissance and particularly Delacroix. At the Exposition Universelle of 1878 in Paris he discovered Gustave Moreau and Edward Burne-Jones, both of whom indelibly influenced his art. He studied with ...

Article

Christoph Brockhaus

(Leopold Isidor)

(b Leitmeritz, northern Bohemia [now Litoměřice, Czech Republic], April 10, 1877; d Schloss Zwickledt, nr Wernstein, Aug 20, 1959).

Austrian draughtsman, illustrator, painter and writer. In 1892 he was apprenticed in Klagenfurt to the landscape photographer Alois Beer. Though learning very little, he remained there until 1896, when he attempted to commit suicide as a result of his unstable disposition. A brief period in the Austrian army in 1897 led to a nervous collapse, after which he was allowed to study art. In 1898 he moved to Munich, where he studied first at the private school run by the German painter Ludwig Schmidt-Reutte (1863–1909) and then briefly at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in the drawing class of Nikolaus Gysis in 1899. In Munich he first saw the graphic work of James Ensor, Goya, Max Klinger, Edvard Munch, Odilon Redon and Félicien Rops, finding Klinger’s work closest to his own aesthetic. He also read Arthur Schopenhauer’s pessimistic philosophy, which he found attractive, and befriended many artists, including the Elf Scharfrichter circle around Frank Wedekind. His work of the period largely consisted of ink and wash drawings modelled on Goya’s and Klinger’s aquatint technique. By their inclusion of fantastic monsters and deformed or maimed humans, these drawings revealed Kubin’s abiding interest in the macabre. Thematically they were related to Symbolism, as shown by the ink drawing ...

Article

American, 20th–21st century, male.

Born 22 July 1955.

Graphic designer, writer, photographer, teacher. Artists’ books.

Warren Lehrer received his BA degree in fine arts from Queens College and an MFA from Yale University. Writing and bookmaking, the combination of words and images, were central to his practice throughout his career. He is best known for his books made in the 1980s, which featured experimental design and typography to express multiple narrative voices, in what he often referred to as ‘plays’ or ‘theatre’. He has said that after these early works, he became more serious about the stories he was telling, and shifted to cleaner, more legible, designs, as in the ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 14 May 1935, in Rouen.

Painter, draughtsman, watercolourist, illustrator, photographer, writer.

In 1951 Georges Lemoine started training as a graphic designer, then during military service in Rabat registered at the École des Beaux-Arts. When he returned to Paris he studied lino-cutting and developed his skills as illustrator, in which he was helped by meeting the typographer Marcel Jacno. From ...

Article

John Milner

[Lisitsky, El’ ; Lisitsky, Lazar’ (Markovich )]

(b Pochinok, Smolensk province, Nov 23, 1890; d Moscow, Dec 30, 1941).

Russian draughtsman, architect, printmaker, painter, illustrator, designer, photographer, teacher, and theorist.

After attending school in Smolensk, he enrolled in 1909 at the Technische Hochschule, Darmstadt, to study architecture and engineering. He also travelled extensively in Europe, however, and he made a tour of Italy to study art and architecture. He frequently made drawings of the architectural monuments he encountered on his travels. These early graphic works were executed in a restrained, decorative style reminiscent of Russian Art Nouveau book illustration. His drawings of Vitebsk and Smolensk (1910; Eindhoven, Stedel. Van Abbemus.), for example, show a professional interest in recording specific architectural structures and motifs, but they are simultaneously decorative graphic works in their own right and highly suitable for publication. This innate awareness of the importance of controlling the design of the page was to remain a feature of Lissitzky’s work throughout radical stylistic transformations. He also recorded buildings in Ravenna, Venice, and elsewhere in Italy in ...

Article

Russian, 20th century, male.

Born 1890 , in Polschinock, in the Smolensk region; died 1941 , in Schodnia, near Moscow.

Architect, painter, sculptor, draughtsman, graphic designer, typographer, poster artist, illustrator, lithographer, photomontage artist, photographer, writer, collage artist. Stage sets.

Constructivism, Suprematism.

Obshchestvo Khudoznikov 4 Iskusstva (Four Arts Society), Vkhutemas...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Died 29 March 1997.

Mixed media, photographer, illustrator, graphic designer. Artists' books.

Mario Mariotti made his initial impact in the 1970s. At that time he was active in the cultural life of Florence, and he organised several exhibitions in the city. Examples of his own output featured in an exhibition entitled ...

Article

Marie de Thézy

(b Paris, July 18, 1816; d between Jan 1878 and Sept 20, 1879).

French photographer and illustrator. He first worked as an illustrator in the medium of wood-engraving and was associated with Tony Johannot. With the writer Charles Nodier (1780–1844) and publishers such as Curmer and Bourdin he took part in the creation of great Romantic illustrated editions of such works as Paul et Virginie by Bernardin de Saint-Pierre. He was, however, primarily a landscape artist known as an illustrator of travel books. By 1851 he had become a photographer, concentrating on religious sites and religious architecture, particularly for Louis-Désiré Blanquart-Evrard, who published c. 100 of his calotypes. He worked for the Louvre and reproduced drawings by major French and Italian artists. Collaborating with architects such as Paul Abadie, he photographed the different stages of construction or of restoration of civil and religious monuments. He also photographed the new Bois de Boulogne.

Marville’s most accomplished work was the album of c...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1940, in Lecce (Apulia).

Painter, watercolourist, illustrator, graphic designer, mixed media, photographer.

Moscara was born in the province of Salento, Apulia and taught at the Istituto d'Arte, Lecce from 1959 to 1982. His work included graphics and illustrations for books, painting and computer-generated images....

Article

Kelly Holohan

revised by Donna Halper

(b Newburyport, MA, 1874; d March 1912).

American illustrator and poster designer. Her father Edgar was a photographer who had studios in Newburyport and Franklin, MA. Ethel seemed to have been influenced by her mother, Mary Elizabeth. She told The Bookman in late 1895 that she and her mother planned to go to Paris together so she could study there. They later went to Ireland and England. Reed was mainly self-taught, but she did study briefly at the Cowles School of Art in Boston and took drawing lessons with the noted miniature painter Laura Coombs Hills (1859–1952), posing for one of Hills’s first miniatures on ivory (Portrait of a Girl, 1880). Reed was quite beautiful and may have been introduced by Hills to Fred Holland Day, who photographed her in The Gainsborough Hat (1895–8). Landscapes painted by Reed were exhibited with the Boston Arts Students’ Association in 1894, but she is best known as a poster artist (...

Article

Lithuanian, 20th century, female.

Born 5 November 1894, in Kovno (Kaunas), Lithuania; died 20 May 1958, in Moscow.

Painter (including gouache), collage artist, photomontage artist, designer, graphic designer, illustrator, poet, writer and theorist. Figures, landscapes. Stage sets, artist's books.

Constructivism. Productivist group. VKhUTEMAS.

Varvara Stepanova studied at the Kazan School of Art in Moscow in ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 7 January 1938, in Paris; died 16 April 1997, in Paris.

Painter, draughtsman, illustrator, poster artist, scenographer, writer. Stage costumes and sets, animated films.

Groupe Panique.

Roland Topor studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris from 1955. From 1955...

Article

American, 19th–20th century, male.

Born 15 April 1856, in La Salle, Illinois; died 24 July 1916, in Altadena, California.

Photographer, bookseller.

Landscapes, portraits, ethnographic studies.

Adam Clark Vroman worked for the railroad in Illinois before moving to Pasadena, California, in 1892 and founding, two years later, a book and stationery store with J.S. Glasscock. Upon relocating, he became increasingly interested in the Native American cultures of the Southwest and began photographing them in ...

Article

Wols  

Philip Cooper

[ Schulze, Alfred Otto Wolfgang ]

(b Berlin, May 27, 1913; d Champigny-sur-Marne, nr Paris, Sept 1, 1951).

German painter, draughtsman, photographer and illustrator . In 1919, when his father was appointed head of the Saxon State Chancellery, the family moved from Berlin to Dresden. The following year Wols started taking violin lessons, showing a precocious musical talent. Having finished his studies at a grammar school in Dresden in 1931 he was too young to take the Abitur examination and so decided to abandon it. Fritz Busch, the conductor of the Dresden Opera, then offered to get him a post as a first violinist with an orchestra. Instead he worked for a few months in the studio of the photographer Gena Jonas in Dresden while also spending time as a garage mechanic.

In 1932 Wols travelled to Frankfurt am Main to study anthropology under the German ethnologist Leo Frobenius, a friend of the family, at the Afrika-Institut, though without his Abitur the plan was short-lived. He then moved to Berlin and entered the ...