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[Khwāja ‛Abd al-Ḥayy]

(fl c. 1374; d Samarkand, 1405).

Illustrator and painter. According to the Safavid chronicler Dust Muhammad, ‛Abd al-Hayy trained under Shams al-Din at Baghdad during the reign of the Jalayirid sultan Uways I (reg 1356–74) and became the leading painter under his son Ahmad (reg 1382–1410), who was also ‛Abd al-Hayy’s pupil. When Timur took Baghdad, ‛Abd al-Hayy was sent to Samarkand, either in 1393 or in 1401, where he spent the rest of his life. He seems to have specialized in monochrome ink drawings: Dust Muhammad recorded that ‛Abd al-Hayy’s pupil, Ahmad Jalayir, contributed a black-and-white drawing to a manuscript of the Abūsa‛īdnāma (‘Book of Abu Sa‛id’), and a number of examples attributed to the late 14th century and preserved in various albums (e.g. Berlin, Staatsbib. Preuss. Kultbes., Orientabt. Diez A. 70–73) bear the notation that they were copied from ‛Abd al-Hayy’s drawings by Muhammad ibn Mahmud Shah Khayyam. In his album (Istanbul, Topkapı Pal. Lib., H. ...

Article

Béla Zsolt Szakács

Luxuriously illustrated hagiographical picture book from the 14th century. The codex is fragmented; the biggest part is preserved in the Vatican (Rome, Vatican, Bib. Apostolica, Vat. Lat. 8541, 106 fols),while single pages are kept in St Petersburg (Hermitage, 16930–16934), Berkeley (U. CA, Bancroft Lib., f2MSA2M21300–37), New York (Met., 1994.516) and Paris (Louvre, RF 29940), and 85 miniatures are in the Morgan Library, New York (M.360.1–26).

Presently 549 miniatures of the original of more than 700 are known on 142 folios. The manuscript consists of pictures exclusively, without the full texts of the legends; one-line tituli are written in rubrics beside the images. The 58 existing cycles depict the life of Christ, the Death of the Virgin, and the legends of John the Baptist, the apostles, martyrs, confessors, virgins and holy women in hierarchical order. The narrative follows the Legenda aurea or Golden Legend of Jacopo da Voragine and, in the cases of Eastern and Central European saints (Gerhard of Csanád, Ladislas, Emeric, Stanislas), other local legends, creating an extraordinarily rich iconographic treasury. The longest cycle is dedicated to James the Greater, originally with 72 scenes; other legends consist of between 2 and 24 scenes. The selection of saints points to a commission from the Hungarian Angevin court. Its style, typical of the second quarter of the 14th century, is closest to Bolognese manuscripts but with unique features, and as such Hungary has also been proposed as the place of execution....

Article

Italian, 14th – 15th century, male.

Born at the end of the 14th century, in Milan; died c. 1470.

Painter, fresco artist. History painting, religious subjects.

Few biographical details are known of this artist. The Church of San Angelo possesses a Pietà, dated 1418, and a ...

Article

French, 14th century, male.

Active in Parisc.1350.

Painter.

Jean Coste was sergeant to King Jean the Good, who commissioned him to decorate his chateau of Vandreuil. Although nothing of this work remains, we know its iconographical programme: scenes from the life of Caesar in the gallery; ...

Article

Junayd  

(fl c. Baghdad,1396).

Illustrator. In the preface recounting the history of past and present painters in an album compiled for the Safavid prince Bahram Mirza in 1544 (Istanbul, Topkapı Pal. Lib., H. 2154), the chronicler Dust Muhammad stated that Junayd of Baghdad was a pupil of Shams al-Din, who worked under the Jalayirid sultan Uways I (reg 1356–74). The only signed work of Junayd known to survive is Humay and Humayun on the Day after their Wedding, one of nine paintings in a manuscript (London, BL, Add. MS. 18113, fol. 45v) of the Dīvān (collected poetry) of Khwaju Kirmani copied at Baghdad in 1396. All the paintings show the same meticulous finish, lyricism and slender puppet-like figures integrated into complex settings and can be attributed to the hand of Junayd (see Islamic art, §III, 4(v)(c) and fig.). Another painting has been detached from the manuscript and included in ...

Article

Ernst J. Grube

[Aḥmad Mūsā]

(fl c. 1330–50).

Persian illustrator. In the preface to an album he compiled for the Safavid prince Bahram Mirza in 1544 (Istanbul, Topkapı Pal. Lib., H. 2154), the Safavid librarian Dust Muhammad wrote that during the reign of the Ilkhanid Abu Sa‛id (reg 1317–35) the master Ahmad Musa ‘lifted the veil from the face of depiction, and the [style of] depiction that is now current was invented by him’. Dust Muhammad credited Ahmad Musa with illustrating an Abūsa‛īdnāma (‘Book of Abu Sa‛id’), a Kalila and Dimna, a Mi‛rājnāma (‘Book of the ascension’) and a Tārīkh-i Chingīzī (‘History of Genghis Khan’); ten illustrations from a 14th-century Mi‛rājnāma, four of them attributed to Ahmad Musa, are included in Dust Muhammad’s album. He presented Ahmad Musa as a major link in the development of Persian book painting in the 14th century (see Islamic art, §III, 4(v)(b) and (c)): having learnt the art from his father, Ahmad Musa in turn trained ...