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Article

Italian, 18th – 19th century, male.

Active at the end of the 18th century and at the beginning of the 19th century.

Engraver, illustrator.

Aliprandi was a line and stipple engraver and illustrator who engraved a number of Fragonard subjects, together with scenes of the Revolution (in the manner of Le Barbier) and several portraits of Louis XVIII (after A. du Morrona). He also illustrated the Venice Almanach of ...

Article

Peter Walch

(b Alloa, Feb 13, 1744; d Edinburgh, Aug 6, 1796).

Scottish painter and illustrator. In 1755 he was apprenticed to Robert Foulis, a printer who, with his brother Andrew Foulis, founded the Foulis Academy, Glasgow, at which Allan was a student until 1764. Allan’s association with the Foulis brothers was long and fruitful; several of his sets of illustrations in the 1780s were for books published by the brothers. In the mid-1760s Charles, 9th Baron Cathcart (1721–76), and several families, including the Erskines of Mar, provided Allan with funds that enabled him to study in Italy, considered essential at that time for any aspiring artist. He probably reached Rome by 1767 and remained there until 1777. During this period he studied with Gavin Hamilton, the leading Scottish artist resident there, and Hamilton encouraged Allan’s ambitions to become a history painter.

In 1771 Allan sent two history pictures to the Royal Academy exhibition in London: Pompey the Great after his Defeat...

Article

Linda Whiteley

In 

Article

Mark Jones

(b Bordeaux, Nov 4, 1761; d Paris, Dec 10, 1822).

French medallist, engraver and illustrator. He was first apprenticed to the medallist André Lavau (d 1808) and then attended the Académie de Peinture et de Sculpture in Bordeaux. In 1786 he travelled to Paris and entered the workshop of Nicolas-Marie Gatteaux. His first great success was a large, realistic and highly detailed medal representing the Fall of the Bastille (1789); because it would have been difficult and risky to strike, he produced it in the form of single-sided lead impressions or clichés, coloured to resemble bronze. The following year he used this novel technique again, to produce an equally successful companion piece illustrating the Arrival of Louis XVI in Paris. Andrieu lay low during the latter part of the French Revolution, engraving vignettes and illustrating an edition of Virgil by Firmin Didot (1764–1836). He reappeared in 1800, with medals of the Passage of the Great St Bernard...

Article

M.-E. Hellyer

(fl 1759–70; d after Jan 16, 1773).

French draughtsman and painter. Most of the biographical information about him comes from the writings of his friend, the painter Jean-Antoine Julien, who established in his autobiography that Ango was already in Rome in November 1760; he also described Ango as a painter, although only drawings by him survive. In 1772, in correspondence with the Belgian painter Andries Cornelis Lens, Julien referred to an attack of apoplexy that had left Ango half-paralyzed and reduced to living on charity. Julien’s last mention of him is on 16 January 1773. Dated drawings known to be by Ango are from the period 1759–70. Most of the surviving drawings are of paintings and decoration in Roman churches and palaces, but some attest to a knowledge of Naples, and it is recorded that on 18 March 1761 Ango and Jean-Honoré Fragonard were given permission to draw copies of the paintings in the gallery of Capodimonte there. Many of Ango’s drawings are copies after Old Masters such as ...

Article

French, 18th century, male.

Active in Bordeaux in 1742.

Died after 1766.

Painter, draughtsman.

He is known to have painted portraits of all the jurors in the town, and is regarded as a skilled graphic artist. Some of his sketches of Bordeaux have survived.

Article

(b London, 1734; d Twickenham, Surrey, 1808).

English painter and illustrator. The eldest daughter of Charles Spencer, 3rd Duke of Marlborough, she married the 2nd Lord Bolingbroke in 1757. They divorced in 1768, and two days later she married the scholar and man of fashion Topham Beauclerk. Her work as an illustrator included Horace Walpole’s Mysterious Mother...

Article

British, 18th – 19th century, male.

Active in the USA fromc.1795.

Born 1748 or 1750, in Elford, Staffordshire; died 1812, in Lexington, Kentucky.

Painter. Landscapes, topographical views, portraits.

The son of a Staffordshire farmer, George Beck was largely self-taught. Tuberculosis cut short his ambitions of a career in the Church and circumstances contrived to provide an opportunity for him to work as a draughtsman for the Royal Engineers. His job was to draw military plans and maps at the Tower of London....

Article

(b Salzburg, May 1, 1753; d Prague, June 25, 1829).

Austrian painter, printmaker, draughtsman, illustrator and teacher, active in Bohemia. He was taught by his father, the sculptor and painter Josef Bergler the elder (1718–88), and, during his stay in Italy, by Martin Knoller in Milan and Anton von Maron in Rome. An accomplished portrait painter, he was employed as official painter by bishops and cardinals at Passau and painted a number of altarpieces in Austria and especially in Bohemia. He helped establish the Academy of Fine Arts, Prague (1800), which placed a new emphasis on draughtsmanship, composition and Classical subjects and models. As the first Director of the Academy, Bergler won new academic prestige for art in Bohemia and, for himself, a privileged position in obtaining commissions such as the Curtain at the Estates Theatre (sketches, 1803–4; Prague, N.G., Convent of St Agnes). He also published albums of engravings intended as models (Compositions and Sketches...

Article

Swiss, 17th – 18th century, male.

Born 1652, in Bern; died 1724.

Draughtsman.

Samuel Bodmer was a surveyor and drew many geographical maps

Article

Laura Suffield

(b Saluzzo, Feb 16, 1740; d Nov 29, 1813).

Italian typographer. He was born into a family of typographers and at the age of 18 moved to Rome, where he was introduced to Cardinal Spinelli. In 1766 Bodoni set out for England, but illness forced him to return home. He started printing and received some local commissions; then, through the offices of Cardinal Spinelli’s librarian, Paolo Maria Paciaudi (1755–1829), he was employed as head of the Stamperia Reale of the dukes of Parma. His early books show the influence of the types used by Pierre-Simon Fournier. He developed a dramatic, bold style, exemplified by the Epithalamia (1775), which celebrates the wedding of the sister of the French king Louis XVI. His mature style achieved a stark brilliance and Neo-classical purity, and from the 1780s he worked with his brother Giuseppe Bodoni (d 1825) to produce his own types. Bodoni made three main innovations in ...

Article

British, 18th century, male.

Active in Dublinc.1770.

Born in England.

Miniaturist.

Joseph Booth trained in England and then settled in Dublin. He invented a mechanical process for reproducing paintings - the polygraphic art - but it achieved only minor success.

Article

Stephen Addiss

[Kameda Chōkō; Kameda Hōsai]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1752; d Edo, 1826).

Japanese painter, poet, calligrapher and book illustrator. The son of an Edo merchant, he studied calligraphy from a very early age under the noted Chinese-style calligrapher Mitsui Shinna (1700–82). He also received a Confucian education, unusual at that time for a merchant’s son. From about 1765 to 1774 Bōsai trained under Inoue Kinga (1732–84), an influential Confucian scholar of eclectic doctrines as well as a painter and calligrapher, at the Seijūkan, a private academy near Yokohama. Bōsai opened a Confucian academy in Edo in 1774. In 1790, however, the Tokugawa shogunate issued an edict aimed at curtailing the popularity of such schools as Bōsai’s, where students were encouraged to develop their own moral philosophy rather than accept the government-sponsored Confucianism of the Chinese Song-period (ad 960–1279) philosopher Zhu Xi. Bōsai gradually lost his pupils and in 1797 closed his school.

Bōsai’s artistic activity increased from ...

Article

Swiss, 18th century, male.

Born 1705, in Basel; died 1775, in Basel.

Watercolourist, draughtsman, illustrator. Topographical views.

From his youth, Emmanuel Büchel made pen-and-ink drawings and gouache paintings of Swiss flora and fauna. He provided illustrations for Bruckner's Wonders of the City of Basel and, from ...

Article

Tadashi Kobayashi

[ Mori ]

( fl Edo [now Tokyo], 1760–94; d c. 1794).

Japanese print designer and book illustrator . He may have been a pupil of the ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’) artist Ishikawa Yukimoto. He is principally known for prints of the following types: hosōban (‘narrow format’, c. 320×150 mm); yakushae (‘pictures of actors’) and bijinga (‘pictures of beautiful women’). In its eclecticism, his style resembles that of his contemporaries, Katsukawa Shunshō ( see Katsukawa family, §1 ) and Suzuki Harunobu , who incorporated a lyricism with a naturalistic depiction of the subject. In 1770 Bunchō collaborated with Harunobu and Shunshō to produce Ehon butai ōgi (‘Picture book of stage fans’; untraced), which featured a new type of yakushae, yakusha nigaoe (‘pictures of likenesses of actors’) and challenged the traditional dominance of theatre illustration by the Torii family school. In Ehon butai ōgi, Bunchō depicted onnagata (kabuki actors playing female roles), while Shunshō illustrated kata keyaki (kabuki villains). Bunchō abandoned ...

Article

Geoffrey Ashton

[Francis]

(b Worcester, Sept 7, 1760; d London, Dec 16, 1848).

English painter and illustrator. He studied at the Royal Academy Schools, London, from 1777. The work of James Barry and Henry Fuseli was an influence on his style, which often strained unsuccessfully towards heroic effects, but a more mundane technical proficiency was gained from copying portraits by Sir Joshua Reynolds. There are several accomplished versions of Reynolds’s 1781 portrait of Dr Charles Burney, Edward’s uncle (e.g. Oxford, Ashmolean), and the best of his few original portraits depicts his cousin, the novelist Fanny Burney (1782; London, N.P.G.). Burney’s first exhibited works were three drawings of scenes from Fanny Burney’s novel Evelina (exh. RA 1780; untraced), and his literary connections may have encouraged his work as an illustrator. Nevertheless, he had dreams of working on a larger scale and made sketches for a St Paul at Ephesus (c. 1800; New Haven, CT, Yale U., A.G.) in the manner of the Raphael Cartoons (London, V&A). Burney’s early drawings, such as the watercolour (...

Article

Hélène Guicharnaud

(b Paris, Feb 25, 1734; d Paris, March 1, 1796).

French painter, engraver and illustrator. He was the son of the painter Claude-François Caresme (b 1709) and studied with his cousin Charles-Antoine Coypel. In 1753 he was a pupil at the Académie Royale, where in 1761 he won second place in the Prix de Rome competition with Judith and Holofernes (untraced). Following his acceptance by the Académie in 1766, he was able to exhibit regularly at the Salon until his expulsion in 1778. In 1768 he received a commission for a Presentation of the Virgin, one of a group of three paintings destined for Bayonne Cathedral, where it still remains. The following year Caresme showed an oil sketch for the picture at the Salon. Shortly after this he was one of a number of painters selected to work at the Petit Trianon, Versailles, where he was commissioned to produce two overdoors for the antechamber: Myrrha Changed into Myrrh...

Article

Amy Meyers

(b Castle Hedingham, Essex, March 24, 1682; d London, Dec 23, 1749).

English naturalist, painter and graphic artist active in the American colonies. His scientific expeditions to the British colonies in North America and the Caribbean (1712–19 and 1722–6) resulted in the first fully illustrated survey of the flora and fauna of the British Colonies in the Americas. The Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands (1731–47) contains 220 hand-coloured etchings. Catesby received lessons in etching from Joseph Goupy and executed most of the plates after his own drawings in graphite, gouache and watercolour. He also produced several plates after drawings by John White, Georg Dionysius Ehret, Everhard Kick and Claude Aubriet.

Catesby moved against the 18th-century trend in the natural sciences to portray Creation as a neatly ordered hierarchy of clearly definable parts. His pictures helped to promote a revolutionary view of the cosmos as a complex system of interdependent elements and forces. Instead of depicting organisms in the conventional manner as isolated specimens against an empty page, he produced tight compositional arrangements in which animals and plants from similar environments reflect one another’s forms. Catesby’s radical images of an integrated cosmos influenced eminent English and American naturalists, including George Edwards (...

Article

Christian Michel

(b Paris, March 19, 1730; d Paris, March 7, 1809).

French engraver, illustrator and writer. He came from a poor family and trained with Guillaume Dheulland (c. 1700–c. 1770) by drawing cartouches for maps. He also had lessons from Pierre-Edmé Babel, a goldsmith and designer of ornament. Having designed mainly cartouches, coats of arms and various types of ornament in the 1750s, he gained recognition as a designer of culs-de-lampe and fleurons, which were considered indispensable for all lavishly produced books. In particular, he produced 57 illustrations for La Fontaine’s Contes in the Fermiers Généraux edition (Paris, 1762) and 38 fleurons and culs-de-lampe for Ovid’s Metamorphoses in Lemire’s and Bassan’s edition (Paris, 1767–71). His long-standing acquaintance Charles-Nicolas Cochin II entrusted him with engraving two plates for the Conquêtes de l’Empereur de la Chine (1767–73; Roux, nos 227–8), an important series of large-scale prints on which the best French engravers were being employed. Large plates are, however, rare in Choffard’s oeuvre; he devoted himself mainly to book decoration, such as fleurons for the Abbé de Saint-Non’s ...

Article

(b Market Drayton, Salop, 1725; d London, Nov 22, 1774).

English soldier, patron and collector. Known to posterity as Clive of India, he was the son of a minor Shropshire squire and rose through the ranks of the British East India Company to become Governor of Bengal. During his time in India he amassed a large collection of Mughal decorative art and miniature paintings (Powis Castle, Powys, NT). Determined to use his foreign fortune to enhance his family’s status and influence at home, Clive employed Sir William Chambers to make alterations at his two properties in Shropshire, Styche Hall (1762–6) and Walcot Hall (1764–7), as well as to his London house, 45 Berkeley Square (1763–7).

In 1769 Clive began building a Palladian villa, Claremont, Surrey, to the designs of Lancelot Brown and Henry Holland, and in 1771 he bought Oakly Park, Ludlow, Salop. That year he started to collect Old Master paintings for Claremont; his principal adviser in this was ...