French, 20th – 21st century, male.
Born 11 January 1953, in Saïda.
Painter, pastellist, sculptor, engraver, draughtsman, illustrator. Designs for stained glass.
Figuration Libre, Citationism.
Jean-Michel Albérola lived in Algeria until 1962. He then went to France, living successively in several cities, including Marseilles, Toulouse, Avignon and Paris. He studied in Marseilles and in Aix-en-Provence. Until ...
French, 20th century, male.
Born 23 September 1923, in Paris.
Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman (including ink), illustrator. Portraits, landscapes. Wall decorations, designs for stained glass, designs for mosaics.
A self-taught artist, Gérard Altmann lived in Paris in the post-war years, moving to Provence in 1952. In the early years he was a figurative artist, painting mainly landscapes in muted colour tones. He received numerous commissions for murals, stained glass windows and mosaics, and shifted towards a relatively abstract approach, retaining some suggestion of reality and, in contrast to his figurative period, featuring strong colours. His architectural preoccupations, embodied in chiaroscuro, transcend the different periods. He shows perfect mastery of watercolour techniques, and also produces Indian ink drawings. He illustrated ...
Romanian, 20th century, male.
Active in France from 1954, naturalised in Israel.
Born 28 April 1929, in Radauti; died 29 April 2010, in Paris.
Painter, illustrator, watercolourist, writer. Designs for tapestries, designs for stained glass.
Avigdor Arikha's childhood was marked by Nazi persecution. He went to Palestine in ...
[Fr.: ‘new art’]
Decorative style of the late 19th century and the early 20th that flourished principally in Europe and the USA. Although it influenced painting and sculpture, its chief manifestations were in architecture and the decorative and graphic arts, the aspects on which this survey concentrates. It is characterized by sinuous, asymmetrical lines based on organic forms; in a broader sense it encompasses the geometrical and more abstract patterns and rhythms that were evolved as part of the general reaction to 19th-century historicism. There are wide variations in the style according to where it appeared and the materials that were employed.
Art Nouveau has been held to have had its beginnings in 1894 or 1895. A more appropriate date would be 1884, the year the progressive group Les XX was founded in Belgium, and the term was used in the periodical that supported it, Art Moderne: ‘we are believers in Art Nouveau’. The origin of the name is usually attributed to ...
Informal movement in architecture and the decorative arts that championed the unity of the arts, the experience of the individual craftsman, and the qualities of materials and construction in the work itself.
The Arts and Crafts Movement developed in the second half of the 19th century and lasted well into the 20th, drawing its support from progressive artists, architects and designers, philanthropists, amateurs, and middle-class women seeking work in the home. They set up small workshops apart from the world of industry, revived old techniques, and revered the humble household objects of pre-industrial times. The movement was strongest in the industrializing countries of northern Europe and in the USA, and it can best be understood as an unfocused reaction against industrialization. Although quixotic in its anti-industrialism, it was not unique; indeed it was only one among several late 19th-century reform movements, such as the Garden City movement, vegetarianism, and folksong revivals, that set the Romantic values of nature and folk culture against the artificiality of modern life....
Swiss, 19th century, male.
Active in Lucerne.
Born 27 November 1828, in Abtwil.
Painter, watercolourist, engraver, draughtsman, illustrator. Religious subjects. Designs for stained glass.
Balmer learned the basics of design in the workshops of a goldsmith in Sins in the canton of Aargau, before moving to Anton Bühler's studio in Lucerne. In ...
[Baemler, Johann; Bemler, Hans]
German illuminator and printer . He is listed in the Augsburg tax rolls from 1453 as a scribe and from 1477 as a printer. Bämler belonged to the guild of painters, glassmakers, woodcut-makers and goldbeaters, eventually achieving the rank of Zwollfer (director). Examples of his youthful work are two signed miniatures dated 1457 (New York, Pierpont Morgan Lib., MS. M.45) and a signed historiated initial on a detached Antiphonal leaf (Philadelphia, PA, Free Lib., Lewis M 67:3). Between 1466 and 1468 he rubricated and decorated with calligraphic and painted ornament four books printed in Strasbourg: a Latin Bible (Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bib., Bibel-S.2°155), a copy of Thomas Aquinas’s Summa theologica (Munich, Bayer Staatsbib., 2° Inc. s.a.1146a) and two copies of St Augustine’s City of God (Chantilly, Mus. Condé, XXII.D.11, and Manchester, John Rylands U. Lib., no. 3218, Inc. 3A8).
Bämler’s knowledge of printing was probably acquired in Augsburg, in the shop of ...
(fl second half of the 15th century).
Italian master builder and architect. During 1465 and 1466 his name appears in the wages book of the Ospedale Maggiore of Lodi, for which he produced doors, oculi and windows in terracotta. In 1479 he was appointed engineer of the city of Milan, and in 1489 he is mentioned as ducal engineer. He worked on the fortifications at Biasca in 1481, and in the same year Gian Galeazzo Sforza, Duke of Milan (reg 1476–94), recommended Battaggio and Giovanni Antonio Amadeo to succeed Guinoforte Solari as architect to the Fabbrica del Duomo. Amadeo was appointed, but Battaggio did not manage to enter the conservative Milanese workshop either then or two years later, when Ludovico Sforza proposed him in preference to Hans Niesenberger. In 1484 Conte Manfredo Landi III (d 1491) commissioned Battaggio and Agostino Fonduli to finish and decorate the façade of his palazzo in Piacenza (now the Palazzo dei Tribunali). This work included the window-frames, the string course bearing heads of Roman emperors and scenes of the marine thiasos and the ...
French, 20th century, male.
Born 21 December 1904, in Paris; died 4 March 2001, in Clamart (Hauts-de-Seine).
Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, draughtsman, engraver, illustrator. Murals, designs for tapestries, designs for mosaics, designs for stained glass, stage sets.
Jean Bazaine studied with the sculptor Landowski at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris at the same time as studying for a degree in literature. He remained very interested in writing, and in the arts and culture in general. Many of his friends were poets and often wrote prefaces for his exhibitions. In 1924, he turned from sculpture to painting. In 1936, he went for the first time to St-Guénolé in Finistère-Sud (Brittany). Fascinated by the sea and the play of light on water which became one of his main subjects, he returned there frequently and also visited the Netherlands from 1956. In 1937 he met Jacques Villon who became a close friend. He received the second mention at the International Exhibition of the Carnegie Institute in Pittsburgh in 1950. He visited Spain and the USA and found there inspiration for his work....
Flemish School, 16th century, male.
Died 1546, in Paris.
Painter, illuminator, miniaturist. Designs for stained glass.
Noël Bellemare was from Belgian stock (from Antwerp) and was active in Paris from before 1520 until his death. The cut pages from the Book of Hours that belonged to Baron Jérôme Pinchon (of which the Louvre has three copies), along with a collection of manuscripts, constitutes a set of works which was initially grouped together under the collective name 'the ...
French, 20th century, male.
Born 7 May 1941, in St-Raphaël.
Painter, graphic designer, illustrator, poster artist, sculptor. Designs for tapestries, stained glass windows, playing cards.
Bevilacqua lived in Africa in his youth. Self-taught, he only began to paint in 1983. In 1991 Bevilacqua realised in public a monumental painting on the subject of ...
French, 20th century, male.
Born 2 November 1916, in La Renisière (Île d'Oléron).
Painter, draughtsman, engraver, illustrator. Designs for stained glass.
Fred Bourguignon was also a successful poet, publishing 16 collections of his poetry illustrated with his own drawings and wood engravings. He was sub-editor of the review ...
Italian, 20th century, male.
Active from 1947 mainly active in France.
Born 3 November 1911, in Fiesole, Tuscany; died February 1998.
Painter, collage artist, woodcut artist, illustrator. Designs for stained glass, designs for mosaics.
Groups: Arte d'Oggi, Espace.
Silvano Bozzolini studied art in Rome in 1928, continuing to study alone in Milan in the following year. In Florence, between 1931 and 1933, he studied the Tuscan Primitives, and was enthusiastic about the work of Masaccio, Giotto, Piero della Francesca and Uccello. In 1936, he enrolled at the art school there. From 1940 to 1943, he served in Mussolini's army in Albania, and subsequently in Greece, where he was wounded. Towards the end of the war, he joined the underground resistance. In 1946-1947, he became a member of the Arte d'Oggi (Art of Today) group. He visited Paris in 1947 and decided to settle there, becoming friends with the French painter, Jean Dewasne, the Hungarian painter, Victor Vasarely, and the French painter of Italian origin, Gilioli. He also met the Danes, Robert Mortensen and Egil Jacobsen, the Russian painter, Poliakoff, and in 1948 Jean Arp and Sonia Delaunay. He was also associated with Jean Deyrolle, and his fellow countryman, Alberto Magnelli, whose paintings were similar to his own. Thus he entered the circle of those artists who were to become the second abstractionist generation, becoming a member of their ...
British, 13th century, male.
Painter, miniaturist, illuminator. Murals, designs for stained glass.
In 1260 this artist was working in the scribes' and illuminators' district of Oxford. He illustrated various manuscripts and psalters between 1230 and 1250, among them The Last Judgement and a Sarum Book of Hours...
French, 20th century, male.
Painter, engraver, draughtsman, illustrator. Designs for tapestries, designs for stained-glass windows.
Pierre-Louis Bréchat studied at the École des Métiers d'Art et des Arts Appliqués and the École des Beaux-Arts in Bourges. He taught at the École des Beaux-Arts in Besançon. In ...
German, 16th century, male.
Born between 1475 and 1480, in Augsburg; died 1537, in Augsburg.
Painter, engraver, draughtsman, illustrator. History painting, religious subjects, allegorical subjects, battles, genre scenes, hunting scenes. Murals, designs for stained glass.
Danube School (Augsburg).
Jörg Breu the Elder is mentioned from 1501...
Belgian, 20th century, male.
Born 1909, in Ghent.
Painter, illustrator, architect. Portraits, urban landscapes, still-lifes. Wall decorations, designs for stained glass, posters.
René Bruynseraede was educated at Ghent academy. He participated in group exhibitions from 1928, almost without exception in Belgium and predominantly in his native Ghent. He exhibited solo from ...
Metal knob or boss used for decoration on a book or harness. The term can also denote a bull’s eye in glass and (in early modern English) trunk-hose that is puffed out at the top. It is also used to describe a heavy textile fringe in curtains, pelmets and the top covers of seat furniture....
American, 19th – 20th century, female.
Active in New York.
Painter, illustrator, stained glass painter.