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Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1941, in Aricò.

Sculptor, painter, glassmaker. Religious subjects, figures, animals.

Gianni Aricò received a diploma in architecture from Venice University in 1971. In 1974 he set up his sculpture studio in the de-consecrated church of S Andrea della Zirada in Venice....

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Article

Cathedral in Co. Galway, Ireland, dedicated to St Brendan. The rubble walls of the pre-Romanesque nave (10th or 11th century) originally formed a simple rectangular church. The rectangular chancel, with its paired east windows, was added in the early 13th century, and in the Late Gothic period the building was enlarged with transept-like chapels and an elegant square belfry, similar to those in Irish friaries, above the west end of the nave. The cathedral is renowned chiefly for the 12th-century sandstone doorway inserted into its west façade (see Romanesque, §III, 1, (v), (e)).

The decoration of the doorway consists of an extraordinary range of motifs, of both foreign and Irish derivation, forming the most idiosyncratic of all Hiberno-Romanesque portals. Jambs, archivolts, and a high-pitched ‘tangent gable’ were exploited as fields for a dense array of pattern-making. Following ancient Irish custom, the decorated jambs are inclined inwards. They support seven orders of deeply cut voussoirs, ornamented with interlace, bosses, scallops, geometrical designs, and beast heads. The beast heads bite a roll moulding and are comparable to those on the west portal of the Nuns’ Church at Clonmacnois (Offaly). The gable contains an arcade and a series of triangular compartments filled alternately with carved human heads and floral motifs. The five heads that peer out from the arcade may have had painted bodies, possibly emulating the enamelled figures with cast bronze heads found on contemporary Limoges plaques. Among the many delightful details are the rows of tiny beast heads on the lower faces of the abaci. Characteristic of the Hiberno-Romanesque is the juxtaposition of shallow carving, as is found here on both the jambs and pilasters, with much deeper cutting, as on the archivolts. Although this eclectic and exotic design was once attributed to the 1160s, most scholars now prefer a date of ...

Article

Michael W. Cothren

Cathedral dedicated to Notre-Dame at Evreux, in the département of Eure, France, 80 km west of Paris, known primarily for its collection of stained-glass windows. Begun after fire destroyed its predecessor in 1119, it was not completed until the 17th century, and its appearance reflects several phases of the Gothic style, with richly decorated Flamboyant traceried windows and a late 16th-century west façade. The cathedral has an aisled nave with a two-tower façade and transepts leading to a chevet with ambulatory and chapels. It was severely damaged in 1940 and was subsequently restored.

Although glazing survives from building campaigns from the late 13th century (south nave chapels, parts of the nave clerestory) to the 16th (north transept clerestory and rose window), the most important windows date from the 14th and 15th centuries, in particular the choir clerestory, whose glass is dated c. 1320–1400. The exact dating, patronage, and original disposition are controversial. The iconographic emphasis is on the Virgin Mary and the patron saints of the donors. The latter constitute some of the most powerful Normans of 1320–40 (...

Article

Hans-Joachim Kunst

[Ger. Hallenkirche]

Term introduced in Wilhelm Lübke’s Die mittelalterliche Kunst in Westfalen (1853) to define a church in which the aisles are the same, or almost the same, height as the nave, so that the nave is lit indirectly by the aisle windows. The hall church differs from the basilica, the distinguishing characteristic of which is the fact that the nave is higher than the aisles and is lit by a clerestory. A variation of the hall church is the Staffelkirche or Stufenhalle (Ger.: ‘staggered hall’), in which the main vessel is higher than the aisles but there is no clerestory.

In all European countries, from the early Middle Ages (e.g. Bartholomäuskapelle, Paderborn; 1017) to the 20th century (e.g. Erlöserkirche, Cologne-Rath; 1954), the hall church has, with the basilica and the centrally planned church, been one of the basic church types as defined by art historians. The hall church was, however, most widespread in ...

Article

Srdjan Djurić

Church on the west bank of Great Prespa Lake in the Republic of Macedonia, 2 km from Kurbinovo village. It was founded in 1191; except for the two large lateral windows added in the 19th century, all later alterations were removed during the 1960s when the church was restored to its original basilical form with a wooden roof. The north, south and west façades are articulated with doors surmounted by lunettes. The west façade bears wall paintings of imperial portraits and frescoes imitating fine stone and brick masonry, while painted scenes from the life and martyrdom of St George decorate the south façade.

Almost all the interior fresco decoration has survived intact; it is divided into three zones, with prophets in the uppermost zone, and the festive cycle and single standing figures, including a procession of bishops, in the middle and lowest zones respectively. Among the scenes depicted are the ...

Article

Jean-Pierre Babelon

[Ange, Etienne Martel]

(b Lyon, 1568/9; d Paris, Oct 3, 1641).

French architect, painter and draughtsman. He was the grandson of a painter of stained glass and son of a painter from Lyon, and he began his own career as a painter. Martellange trained in Italy from 1586 to 1587 with François Stella (1563–1605), and in 1590 he entered the Jesuit Order at Avignon, with the title of Pictor, taking his vows as a coadjutor brother at Chambéry in 1603; he was not, however, ordained a priest.

Martellange worked throughout France, producing architectural plans and some competent watercolour views of Jesuit establishments where work was in progress. Drawings and estimates were sent to the Jesuit Order in Rome and served as a basis for decisions by the leaders of the Order on the building projects in hand. From the study of his drawings (Paris, Bib. N.) it is possible to reconstruct a list of more than 20 Jesuit houses and colleges on which Martellange worked. His active career began in ...

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Ogive  

Article

Sarah Ferguson

Wall composed of two outer skins of ashlar, enclosing a rubble core supporting a passage through the thickness of the wall; it can also be called a double wall, or a thick-wall passage. The outer shell is usually a solid wall pierced by a window while the inner is a more open arcade. The two are connected at the bottom by a flat floor and at the top by a vault or slab (see fig.). Thick-wall structures are found in both Romanesque and Gothic buildings throughout Europe, where they are used for both structural and aesthetic purposes, and for circulation.

Although originating in Late Antique buildings, thick-wall structures first became an important architectural feature in 11th-century Anglo-Norman architecture. The earliest surviving Anglo-Norman examples are found in Normandy, in the transepts of Bernay Abbey and Notre-Dame (c. 1040–50), Jumièges (see Jumièges Abbey, §3), where they serve the practical purpose of providing access from the stair-turrets at the transept ends to the main crossing tower. It was at ...

Article

Tracery  

Allan M. Brodie and Nicola Coldstream

Stone framework to hold sheets of glass in place within a window opening. Tracery is a particularly characteristic feature of Gothic architecture, appearing first in the late 12th century as a means of creating enlarged window openings. The term is derived from the stage in the construction process in which a window pattern was traced out on a bed of plaster laid on a tracing floor (see Tracing floor), as can still be seen at York Minster (see York, §III, 1, (i)). Individual tracery bars were then cut and laid in position on this surface before being inserted into the window-frame. By the early 13th century the patterns created for windows were extended to decorating wall surfaces. Construction techniques were perfected by c. 1230, allowing architects to concentrate on developing increasingly complex patterns. Tracery remained in widespread use until the end of the 16th century. Though initially and primarily a technique in ...