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Armenian, 20th century, male.

Active in the USA fromc.1930.

Born 1914; died 1993, in Los Angeles.

Painter. Landscapes, still-lifes. Designs for stained glass.

After emigrating to the USA, Kero Antoyan became a photographer during World War II and then turned to painting. He exhibited mainly in California and devoted much of his time to teaching painting. He is the father of Ares Antoyan....


Korean, 20th century, female.

Active in France since 1961.

Born 5 July 1937, in Seoul.

Painter, print artist, calligrapher. Designs for stained glass.

Hai-Ja Bang graduated in fine arts of the University of Seoul in 1961, in which year she also arrived in Paris. She worked on frescoes and monument art at the École des Beaux-Arts with Aujame, Lenormand and Bertholle, while she studied stained glass at the École Supérieure des Arts Appliqués in ...


Gordon Campbell

(d 1896).

French glass-maker. In the 1850s Brocard began to study the Islamic tradition of glass-making and to experiment with Islamic decorative techniques, such as staining and enamelling. He made reproduction 14th- and 15th-century Syrian glass which he first exhibited at the 1867 Exposition Universelle. Brocard could not read Arabic, but nonetheless used Arabic calligraphy to decorate his glassware; he sold to Europeans to whom the numerous errors in the Arabic were not apparent. Some of his best-known designs were based on mosque lamps in the Musée de Cluny, Paris....


Israeli, 20th century, male.

Active from 1948 active in Israel.

Born 16 December 1908, in Bucharest.

Painter, engraver, poster artist, graphic designer, decorative designer. Designs for tapestries, and stained glass windows.

He was an architecture student at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where he later studied painting at the Scandinavian Academy and at the Académie Julian ...


S. J. Vernoit

(b Ehden, Lebanon, Sept 14, 1912; d 1994).

American painter and stained-glass artist, of Lebanese birth. After an apprenticeship with the Lebanese painter Habib Srour (1860–1938) in Beirut, he studied from 1932 to 1936 at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris. In 1934 he received the top award for drawing at the school and later exhibited his work at the Salon des Artistes Français. After graduating in 1936, he returned to Lebanon, opening a studio in Beirut, and becoming well known in the early 1940s for his frescoes in the Maronite church at Diman. At the same time his paintings of Lebanese life and the countryside came to public notice when he exhibited at the gallery of the Hotel St–Georges, Beirut, though by the late 1940s he had begun to simplify the style of his work. In 1950 he moved to New York, where his paintings became increasingly abstract, consisting of flat forms of brilliant colour with hard straight edges. Although he was influenced by the artistic life around him, and by his acquaintance with Rothko, Hans Hofmann and Ad Reinhardt, he did not join any group or movement. He became an American citizen in ...


Gordon Campbell

(b Viipuri (now Vyborg, Russia) 1911; d Santorini, Greece, 1989).

Finnish ceramic and glass designer. In 1945 he joined Arabia porcelain factory, where he dispensed with the notion of the china set in favour of mix and match tableware. His best known series was ‘Kilta’ (designed in 1948, sold from 1953 and relaunched in 1981 as ‘Teema’), which was available in several colours and was enormously practical: he dispensed with decorative rims and shaped the surfaces so that they could be easily stacked. He also worked for the Nuutajärvi glassworks, for whom he produced both functional glass and decorative pieces. In both ceramics and glass, Kaj was probably the most influential designer of the 20th century....


Japanese, 20th century, male.

Active in Paris from 1913, naturalised in 1955.

Born 27 November 1886, in Edogama, near Tokyo, baptised in 1959; died 29 January 1968, in Zurich.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, draughtsman (including ink/wash), fresco artist, print artist (including lithography/etching/aquatint), illustrator, decorative artist...


Phylis Floyd

French term used to describe a range of European borrowings from Japanese art. It was coined in 1872 by the French critic, collector and printmaker Philippe Burty ‘to designate a new field of study—artistic, historic and ethnographic’, encompassing decorative objects with Japanese designs (similar to 18th-century Chinoiserie), paintings of scenes set in Japan, and Western paintings, prints and decorative arts influenced by Japanese aesthetics. Scholars in the 20th century have distinguished japonaiserie, the depiction of Japanese subjects or objects in a Western style, from Japonisme, the more profound influence of Japanese aesthetics on Western art.

There has been wide debate over who was the first artist in the West to discover Japanese art and over the date of this discovery. According to Bénédite, Félix Bracquemond first came under the influence of Japanese art after seeing the first volume of Katsushika Hokusai’s Hokusai manga (‘Hokusai’s ten thousand sketches’, 1814) at the printshop of ...



Bent Nielsen

[Chin-ts’un; Kin-ts’un]

Site in Henan Province, China, c. 115 km north-east of Luoyang. Eight tombs of the late Warring States period (403–221 bc) were discovered there. Lavishly furnished with objects of jade, glass, gold, silver, bronze and similar materials, the tombs were looted by local people from 1928 to 1931. Some 300 items (Toronto, Royal Ont. Mus.) were collected and described by Bishop William Charles White, a Canadian who was stationed at nearby Kaifeng at the time. A selection of about 200 objects from private and public collections all over the world was subsequently published (see Umehara). Several of the artefacts contained in the graves were inscribed and thus can be ascribed to specific centuries and feudal states of the Warring States period, leading to some disagreement as to the origin of the tombs: they are considered either to have been constructed by the House of Zhou and to contain presents and tributary objects from the feudal states, or to have been constructed by the state of Qin and to contain war booty....


Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1896, in Gifu Prefecture; died 1985.

Glass artist.

Kagami Kozo graduated from the Tokyo Higher Industrial School in 1915, where he had studied with Rudolph Ina. In 1927 he went to Germany where he studied under Wilhelm von Eiff at the Stuttgart Polytechnic, graduating in ...


Frances Wood

Hollow brick platform constructed against the interior façade wall of houses in northern China, beneath the lattice windows (see China, People’s Republic of §II 5., (ii)). Heated from the inside by small, free-standing braziers or flues connected to cooking stoves, kang are usually used as sleeping areas at night and seats during the day. They are usually the width of one bay (see China, People’s Republic of §II 1., (i)) and about 1 m high and 1.5 m deep. Kang are not found in the warmer areas of southern China, south of the Yangzi River. Evidence from pottery models of houses found in tombs suggests that kang existed during the Han period (206 bcad 220); they are still found in the countryside, though they are rare in cities. The decline of kang in urban areas probably began with the introduction of movable Western-style furniture in the 1920s....


Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1895, in Yokohama; died 1972.

Engraver (wood), illustrator, painter, glass painter. Figures, urban landscapes, still-lifes.

First Thursday Society.

Kawakami had no formal training as an artist and always regarded himself as an amateur. However, he attended the studo of the engraver Kiyoshi Goda (...


Korean, 20th century, male.

Active in France from 1975.

Born 10 September 1940, in Booyo.

Painter. Designs for stained glass.

A calligrapher’s son, Kim studied at the Seoul School of Fine Art from1959 to 1967 in the department of Western painting, and worked there as an assistant ...


Filipino, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1926, in Manila.

Painter, sculptor, printmaker, designer. Figures, landscapes, cityscapes, genre scenes.


Arturo Luz began his art lessons under the painter Pablo Amorsolo. He studied at the University of Santo Tomas College of Fine Arts and received a scholarship to attend the California College of Arts and Crafts in Oakland, California, from which he graduated in ...


Gordon Campbell

[from Fr. potiche: ‘glass vase’]

The mid-19th-century fashion for imitating Japanese or other porcelain by covering the inner surface of glass vessels with designs on paper or sheet gelatine. Those who adopted the craze were called potichomanists.

A Handbook to Potishomachia, or the Art of Ornamenting and Decorating Glass, Giving to it the Appearance of Porcelain...


Iranian, 20th century, male.

Active and then naturalised in France.

Born 1928, in Tehran.

Painter, engraver. Designs for stained glass.

Serge Rezvani was born to an Iranian father and a Russian mother, and has lived in France since he was one year old. He studied in the studio of Émile Othon Friesz in the Académie de la Grande Chaumière until ...


Gordon Campbell

(b 1827; d 1891).

French glassmaker and ceramicist . He was an early advocate of Japonisme, commissioning Bracquemond family, §1 ’s ‘Japanese’ service (1866) and from 1867 running a studio in Paris, where he imitated Chinese carved jade in glass and applied the decorative techniques of Japanese pottery to glass.

K. Schneck: François Eugene Rousseau: Keramik und Glas an der Schwelle zum Jugendstil...



Patrick Conner

[Spilem; Spillem]

(fl Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 1770–1810).

Chinese painter for the Western export market. The artist known to Westerners as Spoilum – his Chinese name is uncertain – is first recorded in 1774, as the painter of a ‘reverse-glass’ portrait of a Western merchant. By the following decade he was painting in oils on canvas. Oil paint was an unfamiliar medium in the context of the Chinese pictorial tradition, and its use stemmed from Western influences. However, the Cantonese export painters of the late 18th century rapidly acquired a facility in this medium and, in the case of Spoilum, an individuality that could be regarded, in Western terms, as evidence of original genius.

Spoilum’s portraits, of Chinese and Western sitters alike, share certain idiosyncrasies: a sharply defined outline, a direct, almost quizzical expression, carefully observed costume details and, in the background, a markedly pale passage above the right shoulder. Typical examples are the portraits of the Cantonese silk merchant Eshing (before ...


Gordon Campbell


British, 20th century, male.

Born 1877; died 1964.

Stained glass painter, watercolourist.

Leonard Walker created stained-glass windows for churches in London, Lahore and Hong Kong. He was married to Aileen Walker.