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Article

British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 12 October 1854, in Edinburgh; died 1929, in North Berwick.

Painter (including gouache). Interiors with figures, landscapes, urban landscapes, gardens, urban views, architectural views, interiors, portraits.

Having studied at the Royal Scottish Academy under George Paul Chalmers and MacTaggart, Patrick Adam went on to exhibit at the Royal Scottish Academy at the age of 18 and at the London Royal Academy ...

Article

Andreas Kreul

(b Hamburg, Oct 2, 1757; d Pisa, Aug 18, 1806).

German architect, draughtsman, landscape designer and painter. He studied from 1778 to 1783 at the University of Göttingen and the Royal Danish Academy in Copenhagen, where he was awarded four prizes. His early designs included drawings for the hothouse of the botanic gardens in Copenhagen and a lecture room at Schloss Charlottenburg, Berlin. While visiting Paris in 1784–5 he devoted himself to the study of Revolutionary architecture, and in England and Italy (1786) he studied landscape design and ancient sites. In Rome in 1787 he met Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, who later summoned him to Weimar to rebuild the prince’s Schloss. In addition to a number of designs for the palace at Weimar he produced drawings for various summer-houses. In 1790 he moved to Hamburg, his plans for the Schloss at Weimar still largely unexecuted. By the end of his life he had designed numerous public buildings and private houses in Hamburg, including the house for Bürgermeister ...

Article

Ingrid Sattel Bernardini

(b Gotha, Dec 27, 1725; d Vienna, March 23, 1806).

German sculptor, painter and architect. He was the son of a court gardener who worked first in Gotha and then in Württemberg. He was originally intended to become an architect; in 1747 Duke Charles-Eugene of Württemberg sent him to train in Paris where, under the influence of painters such as Charles-Joseph Natoire and François Boucher, he turned to painting. The eight-year period of study in Rome that followed prompted Beyer to devote himself to sculpture, as he was impressed by antique works of sculpture and was also influenced by his close contacts with Johann Joachim Winckelmann and his circle. He also served an apprenticeship with Filippo della Valle, one of the main representatives of the Neo-classical tendency in sculpture. In 1759 Beyer returned to Germany, to take part in the decoration of Charles-Eugene’s Neues Schloss in Stuttgart.

In Stuttgart Beyer made an important contribution to the founding and improvement of facilities for the training of artists, notably at the Akademie, and to manufacture in the field of arts and crafts, particularly at the ...

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1937, in Ukkel.

Painter, draughtsman. Landscapes, architectural views, gardens, flowers. Stage costumes and sets.

Painted nostalgic views of baroque and Romanesque châteaux, royal gardens, landscapes and flowers.

Bosquet, Thierry/Dasnoy, Philippe: Versailles Disparu, Société des Amis de Versailles, Éd. Acatos, Lausanne, 2001....

Article

Paulo J. V. Bruna

(b São Paulo, Aug 4, 1909; d nr Rio de Janeiro, June 4, 1994).

Brazilian landscape architect, painter and designer. He studied painting at a private school in Berlin from 1928 to 1929, and during this time he frequently went to the Botanical Gardens at Dahlem to study the collections of plants that were arranged in geographical groupings, providing useful lessons in botany and ecology. He thus learnt to appreciate many examples of Brazilian flora that were rarely used in Brazilian gardens, an experience that had a lasting effect on him. In 1930 he entered the Escola Nacional de Belas Artes in Rio de Janeiro to study painting; he also took a course in ecology at the Botanical Gardens in Rio. From 1934 to 1937 he was Director of Parks and Gardens at Recife, leaving when he established his own practice as a landscape architect in Rio de Janeiro. To this period belong the gardens of the Casa do Forte, where aquatic plants predominate, and the gardens he designed for the Praça Euclides da Cunha, where his studies of the ...

Article

Brazilian, 20th century, male.

Born 1909, in São Paulo.

Painter, architect, landscape artist. Landscapes, still-lifes. Murals.

Burle-Max left for Germany in 1929 where he discovered modern art. On his return to Rio de Janeiro in 1930, he was encouraged to paint landscapes by the architect Lucio Costa. In ...

Article

Cornish  

Keith N. Morgan

American town and former artists’ colony in the state of New Hampshire. Situated on a line of hills near the eastern bank of the Connecticut River c. 160 km north-west of Boston, Cornish looks across to Windsor, VT, and Mt Ascutney. It was settled in 1763 as an agrarian community, but its population was rapidly reduced during the migration to the cities in the second half of the 19th century. From 1885 until around the time of World War I, Cornish was the summer home of a group of influential sculptors, painters, architects, gardeners, and writers. For this coherent group, the Cornish hills symbolized an ideal natural environment that reflected the classical images so important in their work. The sculptor who first spent a summer in Cornish in 1885, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, bought his summer residence there in 1891, and he was soon followed by the painters Henry Oliver Walker (...

Article

Italian, 19th century, male.

Active in Dublin at the beginning of the 19th century.

Born 1770, in Rome; died 1828.

Painter. Landscapes, urban landscapes, gardens, ruins, architectural views, architectural interiors.

Gaspare Gabrielli appears to have studied in Rome. He arrived in Dublin prior to 1811...

Article

Chinese, 17th century, male.

Activec.1623-1631.

Born in Siming (Zhejiang).

Painter, draughtsman. Landscapes, architectural views, gardens, birds, flowers.

Gao Yang was the son-in-law of Zhao Bei. He painted mostly flowers, birds and rocks, but towards the end of his career also produced landscapes.

Cologne (Mus. für Ostasiatische Kunst): ...

Article

Cinzia Maria Sicca

(b Bridlington, bapt Jan 1, 1685; d London, April 12, 1748).

English architect, painter, landscape gardener and designer. He was the most exuberant and innovative architect and designer active in England in the first half of the 18th century. He was trained as a painter but was not particularly successful or remarkable in this work, showing greater skill as a draughtsman. As an architect he was highly versatile, practising in both the Palladian and Gothick styles, and this versatility extended to his work as a designer, which included interior decoration, furniture and silverware, book illustration, stage sets and gardens.

Kent was born into a poor family in the East Riding of Yorkshire. Nothing is known of his early education, nor of the circumstances that led to his apprenticeship to a coach-painter in Hull at about the age of 15. Kent is first recorded in London in 1709, when he applied for a passport to go to Italy. He was then 24 and, according to ...

Article

David R. Coffin

(b Naples, c. 1513; d Ferrara, Oct 26, 1583).

Italian architect, painter, draughtsman and antiquary. He is best known for his designs for the Casino of Pius IV in the Vatican and his gardens for the Villa d’Este at Tivoli, which greatly influenced Renaissance garden design. His work reflects his interest in the reconstruction of Classical antiquity, although this was sometimes based on fragmentary information, and his painting and architecture are closely dependent on classicism with a richness of detail associated with Roman Imperial art.

He was presumably born into a noble family and probably moved to Rome in 1534. At first he was active producing decorative paintings for palaces: Giovanni Baglione recorded numerous houses in Rome with façades frescoed by Ligorio in a distinctive yellow monochrome in the manner of Polidoro da Caravaggio or Baldassare Peruzzi. The only extant example of his figurative painting is a fresco depicting the Dance of Salome (c. 1544; Rome, Oratory of S Giovanni Decollato). In ...

Article

Australian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 25 February 1855, in Melbourne; died 20 December 1917, in South Yarra.

Painter. Scenes with figures, genre scenes, landscapes, urban landscapes, architectural views, boats, gardens.

Frederick McCubbin trained at the newly established School of Design at the National Gallery of Melbourne in 1871. He stayed briefly in Europe in 1907. His works are close to those of his contemporaries, the French Impressionists. Like them, he painted out of doors, depicting everyday scenes in muted, neutral colours. His sober compositions testify to his deep attachment to his native Australia....

Article

British, 19th century, male.

Born 19 February 1793, in Chester-le-Street; died 2 March 1881, in London.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, draughtsman. Hunting scenes, landscapes with figures, landscapes, architectural views, gardens, seascapes.

William Andrews Nesfield graduated from Trinity College, Cambridge. He was initially a soldier, but retired after a number of campaigns with the rank of lieutenant. He was an associate, and then a member, of the Society of Painters in Watercolours and exhibited ...

Article

Keith N. Morgan

(b New York, Oct 16, 1861; d Cornish, NH, Sept 12, 1933).

American architect, garden designer, etcher, and painter. He was brought up in New York, where he began his artistic training in 1878 at the National Academy of Design and the Art Students League. The following summer he was introduced to the recently revived art of etching, and he quickly achieved critical recognition for his work in this medium. He continued to etch for most of his life, concentrating on coastal scenes in which he strove to capture the atmospheric interaction of light, air, and water. In May 1882 Platt travelled to Paris to continue his training as a painter, working first independently and then after 1883 at the Académie Julian under Jules Lefebvre. Although he exhibited The Etcher (Boston, MA, St. Botolph’s Club) at the Paris Salon of 1885, Platt eventually rejected his figural training and turned back to his youthful interest in landscape. On his return to New York, he continued to exhibit his paintings and etchings, and in ...

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 16 October 1861, in New York; died 12 September 1933, in Cornish.

Painter, engraver, architect, garden designer. Seascapes, landscapes, interiors.

Charles Adams Platt was a student of the National Academy of Design, the Art Students League of New York and of Lefebvre and Boulanger in Paris. He belonged to the American Federation of the Arts. He won a bronze medal at the Paris Exhibition of ...

Article

Jean de Cayeux

[Robert des Ruines]

(b Paris, May 22, 1733; d Paris, April 15, 1808).

French painter, draughtsman, etcher and landscape designer. He was one of the most prolific and engaging landscape painters in 18th-century France. He specialized in architectural scenes in which topographical elements derived from the buildings and monuments of ancient and modern Italy and of France are combined in often fantastic settings or fictitious juxtapositions. The fluid touch and rich impasto employed in his paintings, also shared by his friend Jean-Honoré Fragonard, are matched by the freedom of his numerous red chalk drawings and the few etchings that he is known to have produced.

Robert’s father was an official in the service of the Marquis de Stainville whose son, the Comte de Stainville (later Duc de Choiseul), became the young artist’s protector. According to Mariette, Robert learnt drawing as a pupil of the sculptor René-Michel (Michel-Ange) Slodtz, although other sources suggest, improbably, that he studied with the painter Pierre-Jacques Cazes. It is certain, however, that he received a classical education in Paris, at either the aristocratic Collège de Navarre or the Collège de Beauvais....

Article

Rococo  

Richard John and Ludwig Tavernier

A decorative style of the early to mid-18th century, primarily influencing the ornamental arts in Europe, especially in France, southern Germany and Austria. The character of its formal idiom is marked by asymmetry and naturalism, displaying in particular a fascination with shell-like and watery forms. Further information on the Rococo can be found in this dictionary within the survey articles on the relevant countries.

Richard John

The nature and limits of the Rococo have been the subject of controversy for over a century, and the debate shows little sign of resolution. As recently as 1966, entries in two major reference works, the Penguin Dictionary of Architecture and the Enciclopedia universale dell’arte (EWA), were in complete contradiction, one altogether denying its status as a style, the other claiming that it ‘is not a mere ornamental style, but a style capable of suffusing all spheres of art’. The term Rococo seems to have been first used in the closing years of the 18th century, although it was not acknowledged by the ...

Article

Ukrainian, 20th century, male.

Born 1925, in Kertch (Crimea).

Painter, draughtsman. Historical subjects, genre scenes, landscapes, gardens, architectural views, seascapes, flowers.

Piotr Stolerenko attended the Aivazovsky academy of fine arts and was a pupil of Nikolai Barsamov. He was a member of the Association of Artists of Revolutionary Russia, and was named Artist of the People. He lived in Yalta and liked to express the gentleness and light of the Crimea in his landscapes. He also painted historical revolutionary paintings. He participated in important official exhibitions in his country, and he was one of the artists representing 'Russian Art' in London in ...

Article

Yugoslav, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 11 November 1936, in Vodenica, Bosnia.

Painter. Scenes with figures, interiors with figures, urban landscapes, architectural views, gardens, still-lifes.

Marco Stupar took drawing classes in Belgrade from 1961 to 1964, then settled in Paris. He painted the popular streets and public gardens of Paris with figures, and captured the atmosphere of Venice caffés and the intimate, serene charm of interiors, using ranges of yellows, reds, blues and oranges. He was awarded a silver medal in 1978 and a gold medal in 1981 by the Salon des Artistes Français. In 1981, he was appointed a member of the Taylor Foundation in Paris....

Article

Monica E. Kupfer

(b Horconcitos, Chiriquí, Feb 11, 1927).

Panamanian painter, ceramicist, printmaker, tapestry designer and landscape architect. He studied both architecture and painting in Panama, holding his first exhibition in 1953; he then continued his studies in Madrid (1954–8) at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, at the Escuela de Cerámica de la Moncloa and at the Escuela Superior de Arquitectura. In 1959 he returned to Panama, where he began a long teaching career at the Universidad de Panamá. In the early 1960s Trujillo painted social satires, such as The Commissioners (1964; Panama City, Mus. A. Contemp.) with small monstrous figures in cavernous settings. Later his palette brightened as he turned to new subjects based on nature, including numerous still-lifes and semi-abstract paintings with botanical allusions, for example Still-life with Fruit (1975; Washington, DC, A. Mus. Americas).

Always a versatile and prolific artist, in the 1970s and 1980s he based his subjects both on his rich imagination and on his knowledge of Panama’s indigenous cultures. He made recurring reference to the patterns of pre-Columbian ceramics, natural and biomorphic forms, mythological and primitive figures, and Indian symbols and ceremonies, all treated as elements of an iconography strongly related to his Panamanian origin. Although generally classified as belonging to the return to figuration among Latin American artists, he ranged stylistically from realism to abstraction....