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Chen Yi  

Chinese, 15th – 16th century, male.

Born 1469, in Ningpo (Zhejiang); died 1583.


Chen Yi was a scholar, calligrapher and landscape artist who lived in Nanjing. He was an admirer of Su Dongpo and a friend of Wen Zhengming.


Italian, 15th – 16th century, male.

Born after 1490, in Ferrara; died c. 1548, in Ferrara.

Painter, decorative artist, caricaturist. Religious subjects, landscapes.

Ferrara School.

Battista Dossi was a landscape artist and caricaturist. He was the pupil of Lorenzo Costa, and worked almost exclusively with his brother Giovanni, although they did not get on. Battista had a difficult temperament and was physically deformed, and only communicated with his brother in writing. According to Barruffaldi, they lived in Rome for six years, then in Venice for five years, where they painted from nature, and had the best teachers....


Janet Southorn

(d Rome, 1505).

Italian banker and patron. He was from a noble family in Rome, prominent in banking and as civic officials, and received a humanist education. He formed a collection of antiquities, which was arranged in the garden of the Casa Galli (destr.), near the Palazzo della Cancelleria, Rome. In 1496, probably through his friend Cardinal Raffaele Riario, he met Michelangelo, who was on his first visit to Rome. Michelangelo came to live in Galli’s house, and Galli bought his first large-scale sculpture, the marble Bacchus (1496; Florence, Bargello). The Bacchus was displayed in the garden of the Casa Galli, where it was recorded in a drawing of 1536 by Maarten van Heemskerck (Berlin, Kupferstichkab.) and in a description c. 1550 by Ulisse Aldrovandi, until its purchase in 1571–2 by Francesco I de’ Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany. Galli is documented as owning a standing marble Cupid, or Apollo, by Michelangelo (untraced, though possibly to be identified as that in New York, French Embassy Cult. Bldg). He also supervised the contract of ...


Gordon Campbell

[Fr.: entrelacs]

Small garden where clipped, low-growing plants are laid out in a series of continuous interlacing bands. The term knot garden is sometimes used in 15th-century English to refer to a maze and in 16th- and 17th-century English to a French parterre (formal flower garden). Knot gardens seem to have originated in the knot designs of carpets and rugs imported into Europe from the Middle East in the 15th century.

The knot garden reached its apogee in England and France with designs printed in Thomas Hill’s The Profitable Art of Gardening (1568, 1608) and in L’Agriculture et la maison rustique (1564, 1570, 1572, 1582) by Charles Estienne and Jean Liébault; the 1572 edition was translated into English as Maison rustique, or the country farm by Richard Surflet in 1600, and the 1608 edition of Hill’s text replaces the knot design of the earlier edition with one borrowed from the ...


Gordon Campbell

An artificial hill in a garden setting. The mount was often hollow, and its interior could be used for storage and to provide shelter for delicate plants. Mounts first appear in Italy, where they were a feature of both botanical gardens (where they helpfully produced differentiated microclimates) and villa gardens. The original mounts still survive in the botanical gardens at Padua, Montpellier (where the terraced mount is oblong) and in the Jardins des Plantes in Paris, where the mount was originally planted with vines. The fashion later spread to England, where mounts were constructed at New College Oxford (1529, still in the garden), Theobalds (Herts), Lyveden New Bield (Northants; where two large mounts survive) and, most elaborate of all, Hampton Court Palace. The mount never became fashionable in French gardens, despite the proselytising efforts of Olivier de Serres, who illustrated several mounts in his Théâtre d’Agriculture (1600). Mounts were ascended on spiralling paths, and so were often called ‘snail mounts’ (e.g. the mount built at Elvetsham (Hants), in honour of a visit by Queen Elizabeth in ...