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Article

Austrian, 18th century, male.

Active in Vienna, from 1780 to 1801.

Died 1802.

Engraver (line-engraving), draughtsman.

According to Bartsch, he was a pupil of landscape artist Brand. By 1787 he had a major studio where he employed 20 or so engravers making maps and English drawings. His name appears on the title page ...

Article

F. Hamilton Hazlehurst

In 

Article

[Anhalt, Duke of]

(b Dessau, Aug 10, 1740; reg 1756–1817; d Dessau, Aug 9, 1817).

German ruler and garden designer. After leaving the Prussian Army in 1757, he devoted himself to governing Dessau, instituting provision for the poor, public health and education. He made four journeys to England (1763–85) with Friedrich Wilhelm Erdmannsdorff, with whom he also travelled through Italy (1765–6). He studied for six months with Johann Joachim Winckelmann, whose ‘mimetic theory of the Ancients’ he realized in his garden designs. With Erdmannsdorff and his planters, he created gardens at Luisium (1774) and Sieglitzer Berg (1777) and most notably at Wörlitz (1764–1810), based on such English models as The Leasowes (Worcs), Stowe (Bucks), Kew Gardens (London) and Stourhead (Wilts). He was acquainted with William Chambers, Henry Holland, Sir William Hamilton (i) and possibly also Henry Flitcroft and ‘Capability’ Brown. As well as introducing the English landscape garden and Palladian country house to the Continent, the Prince also transplanted the Gothic Revival. The ‘Country House’ and ‘Gothic House’ at ...

Article

J. J. Martín González

Spanish palace that stands beside the rivers Tagus and Jarama in the province of Madrid, 47 km south of the capital. It was intended as a spring and summer residence for the royal family and is renowned for its gardens and fountains. The summer residence built at Aranjuez in 1387 by Lorenzo Suárez de Figueroa, Grand Master of the Order of Santiago, became royal property under Ferdinand II, King of Aragon, and Isabella, Queen of Castile and León. In the reign of Charles V improvements were carried out by Luis de Vega (from c. 1537) and the palace was extensively enlarged by Philip II. The chapel was designed by Juan Bautista de Toledo and completed by Jerónimo Gili and Juan de Herrera. It was built in a combination of white stone from Colmenar de Oreja and brick, giving a two-toned effect that was adopted for the rest of the palace. In ...

Article

Andreas Kreul

(b Hamburg, Oct 2, 1757; d Pisa, Aug 18, 1806).

German architect, draughtsman, landscape designer and painter. He studied from 1778 to 1783 at the University of Göttingen and the Royal Danish Academy in Copenhagen, where he was awarded four prizes. His early designs included drawings for the hothouse of the botanic gardens in Copenhagen and a lecture room at Schloss Charlottenburg, Berlin. While visiting Paris in 1784–5 he devoted himself to the study of Revolutionary architecture, and in England and Italy (1786) he studied landscape design and ancient sites. In Rome in 1787 he met Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, who later summoned him to Weimar to rebuild the prince’s Schloss. In addition to a number of designs for the palace at Weimar he produced drawings for various summer-houses. In 1790 he moved to Hamburg, his plans for the Schloss at Weimar still largely unexecuted. By the end of his life he had designed numerous public buildings and private houses in Hamburg, including the house for Bürgermeister ...

Article

Arkadia  

Anna Bentkowska

Park near Łowicz, Poland. The best-preserved 18th-century Romantic landscape park in Poland, it was founded in 1778 by the patron and collector Princess Helena Radziwiłł (1749–1821). She competed as a patron with Princess Izabela Czartoryska, and Arkadia was a response to the latter’s park (destr.), also called Arkadia, at Powązki, outside Warsaw. Princess Helena Radziwiłł conceived the literary and philosophical idea of the park, and in order to realize her project she employed Simon Bogumił Zug as designer.

The park covers c. 30 ha on the banks of an artificially formed lake, with the Isle of Sacrifices and the River Łupia. An area of wild, unimproved nature, the Elysian Fields, is laid out on the west bank. An English-style park, complete with pavilions, classical ruins, tombs, altars and grottoes, is situated on the east bank. The park is so designed and landscaped that the footpaths, lined with trees and shrubs, lead the visitor to its main feature, the Neo-classical Temple of Diana, from where there is a panoramic view of the lake and the park. The temple, designed by ...

Article

M. I. Andreyev

Estate situated 20 km west of Moscow. It was first recorded in 1537 as the village of Upolzy, and renamed Arkhangel’skoye after a brick church dedicated to the Archangel Michael was built in 1667 to replace a wooden one. From 1703 to 1810 the estate belonged to the princes Golitsyn and from 1810 to 1917 to the princes Yusupov, notably Yusupov family, §1. In 1919 it became a museum-estate.

One of the finest Russian palace and park ensembles, Arkhangel’skoye has as its nucleus a Neo-classical palace, connected to the two wings set in front of the main façade by powerful Tuscan colonnades. It was built by local serf craftsmen between 1780 and 1790 to a plan by the French architect Charles de Guerney. The strict symmetry of the palace’s architecture is underscored by the severe belvedere and central portico with four Ionic columns; on the opposite side, overlooking the park, the projection of an oval room, decorated with a pair of Ionic columns, echoes the portico. In ...

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Kathleen Russo

In 

Article

British, 18th century, male.

Born 1720, in Taunton; died 21 August 1791, in Hestercombe.

Painter, watercolourist, engraver, landscape gardener. Landscapes.

Coplestone Warre Bampfylde is above all remembered for his contribution to landscape garden design, particularly to the estate of Hestercombe House where he lived from the 1750s. He exhibited a landscape of ...

Article

British, 18th – 19th century, male.

Landscape artist.

C. Barrow exhibited at the Royal Academy in London from 1789 to 1802.

Article

Susan B. Taylor

(b Paris, April 12, 1744; d Paris, May 1, 1818).

French architect and landscape designer. He had a distinguished career as a royal architect at the courts of Louis XV and Louis XVI. Although his fame rests on his accomplishments as a landscape architect, his mercurial talents are perhaps best characterized in his drawings for interior decoration and court festivals. After studying physics under the Abbé Nollet at the Collège de Navarre, Bélanger attended the Académie Royale d’Architecture in Paris between 1764 and 1766 where he worked under Julien-David Le Roy and Pierre Contant d’Ivry. He was not a successful student and left without achieving the illustrious Prix de Rome. Nevertheless, under Le Roy’s influence he was involved with the circle of Neo-classical artists, including Charles-Louis Clérisseau, who had recently returned from Italy. In 1767 Bélanger became a Dessinateur du Roi at the Hôtel des Menus Plaisirs under Charles Michel-Ange Challe. Since the Menus Plaisirs were responsible for the temporary decorations and stage scenery for court festivities, Bélanger was involved with preparations for the marriage celebrations in ...

Article

Ingrid Sattel Bernardini

(b Gotha, Dec 27, 1725; d Vienna, March 23, 1806).

German sculptor, painter and architect. He was the son of a court gardener who worked first in Gotha and then in Württemberg. He was originally intended to become an architect; in 1747 Duke Charles-Eugene of Württemberg sent him to train in Paris where, under the influence of painters such as Charles-Joseph Natoire and François Boucher, he turned to painting. The eight-year period of study in Rome that followed prompted Beyer to devote himself to sculpture, as he was impressed by antique works of sculpture and was also influenced by his close contacts with Johann Joachim Winckelmann and his circle. He also served an apprenticeship with Filippo della Valle, one of the main representatives of the Neo-classical tendency in sculpture. In 1759 Beyer returned to Germany, to take part in the decoration of Charles-Eugene’s Neues Schloss in Stuttgart.

In Stuttgart Beyer made an important contribution to the founding and improvement of facilities for the training of artists, notably at the Akademie, and to manufacture in the field of arts and crafts, particularly at the ...

Article

Carola Hicks

English country house near Woodstock, Oxon, designed by John Vanbrugh for John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough. It was begun in 1705 and completed c. 1725. The gardens, initially laid out by Vanbrugh and Henry Wise, were largely redesigned in 1764–74 by ‘Capability’ Brown. Blenheim Palace is regarded as one of the finest examples of English Baroque architecture. It was a gift to the Duke from a grateful Crown and nation to commemorate his victory in 1704 over the French and Bavarians at Blenheim (now Blindheim) during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–14). The intention was to create a public monument symbolizing the glory of Britain and a palace fit for a hero, rather than a building on a domestic scale. This is reflected in Vanbrugh’s dramatic and monumental design, inspired by both English and French architecture, which developed the style he had begun to formulate in his earlier work at Castle Howard, N. Yorks. In both undertakings he was assisted by ...

Article

Lucia Tongiorgi Tomasi

[botanical]

A type of Garden developed by university medical schools in Europe from the mid-16th century for the collection and scientific study of plants; its origins lie in the monastic herbal gardens of the medieval period. The observation of plant specimens for educational purposes led to the establishment of numerous ‘physic’ gardens (hortus medicus): both Pisa and Padua had a botanic garden by 1544, and that at Florence was established in 1545; other early important examples include Leipzig (1580), Leiden (1587), Montpellier (1593), Oxford (1621), the Jardin des Plantes (1626), Paris, Uppsala (1665), Chelsea Physic Garden (1673), London, and Amsterdam (1682). The experimental method that was gradually beginning to dominate scientific study, together with the requirements imposed by the cultivation of plants, soon began to overshadow the aesthetic qualities that had characterized the Renaissance and Baroque garden. Virtually all decorative elements, such as statues, grottoes, fountains or mazes, were excluded from the botanic garden, whose value resided in its collection of such rare and exotic plant species as the sunflower, the agave or the tomato, all from newly discovered parts of the world. Certain plants, including the tulip, fritillary, narcissus, iris and anemone, were particularly sought after in the 17th century because of their shape and colour....

Article

David Rodgers

(d London, July 19, 1738).

English landscape gardener. His origins and education are obscure, but his father may have been gardener to the Harley family at Wimpole Hall, Cambs. Bridgeman is first recorded at Blenheim Palace, Oxon, working for Henry Wise, the Royal Gardener, under the general supervision of John Vanbrugh. A plan of the estate drawn by Bridgeman in 1709 reveals him to have been an accomplished surveyor, and he may well have worked for Wise and his partner George London previously.

Bridgeman’s contribution at Blenheim during this period is unknown, but it may be assumed that Vanbrugh was pleased with his work, for the two men collaborated at Stowe, Bucks, for Richard Temple, 1st Viscount Cobham (from 1716); at Eastbury (destr.), Dorset, for George Bubb Dodington, 1st Baron Melcombe (1691–1762), in 1718; and at Claremont, Surrey, for Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle (1693–1768), in the 1720s. By the mid-1720s he was established as the most successful, influential and fashionable gardener of his day and had begun a long association with ...

Article

(bapt Kirkharle, Northumb., Aug 30, 1716; d London, Feb 6, 1783).

English landscape gardener and architect.

Following his schooling at the nearby village of Cambo, Brown was first employed c. 1732 by Sir William Loraine of Kirkharle, who was then extending his grounds and remodelling the house. Here Brown learnt the rudiments of building and land management and in time was entrusted with laying out extensions to the garden. At Kirkharle, Loraine rebuilt the village on a new and more distant site and, with Brown’s assistance, laid out extensive lawns, flanking them with massive plantations in which several thousand trees of contrasting foliage were introduced. Scarcely a trace remains of this transformation, but a descendant of Loraine recorded that it was Brown’s ‘first landscape work’ and led to him being consulted on other gardens in the area towards the end of the decade.

In about 1739 Brown decided to make a career for himself further south, and his first known commission (...

Article

Aonghus Mackechnie

(b Perthshire, 1625; d 1710).

Scottish architect and garden designer. He was the younger son of Robert Bruce of Blairhall, Perthshire, and probably attended St Salvator’s College, St Andrews, in 1637–8. Bruce was interested in the arts and was reputed to be well versed in languages, but it was as a politician that he first achieved recognition. He played a significant role in General Monk’s conversion to the Royalist cause in 1659 and was a confidential messenger between the Scottish Lords and Charles II in the months preceding the Restoration. Shortly after 1660 he was knighted, and through John Maitland, 2nd Earl and 1st Duke of Lauderdale—whose second wife was a full cousin of Bruce’s—he obtained various minor though lucrative employments before his appointment in 1671 as Surveyor-General of the Royal Works in Scotland (the ancient post of Master of the Royal Works, which had been re-created specifically for the rebuilding of the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh), which he held until ...

Article

Peter Fidler

[Marcell Armand]

(b Vincennes, 1730; d Vienna, Nov 2, 1786).

French architect and landscape designer, active in Austria. He trained in Paris under Giovanni Niccolò Servandoni, whom he followed to Vienna in 1760. There he worked for the Crown Prince (later Emperor Joseph II (reg 1765–90)), and in 1776 he became Court Architect with responsibility for work in the suburbs of Vienna. Besides numerous architectural monuments, including a triumphal arch (1765) in Innsbruck, Canevale was also commissioned by the Emperor to design several private buildings, as well as summer houses for him in the Prater district of Vienna (1781–4) and on the Laaerberg (1786). Canevale also redesigned the Allgemeines Krankenhaus (the ‘Narrenturm’; 1783), the Josephinum (1783–5), a military medical school founded by the Emperor, and the anatomical theatre in the old university, all in Vienna (see Austria, Federal Republic of §II 4.). Other works included the garden ‘castle’ known as ‘Josephstöckl’ (...

Article

French, 18th century, male.

Activec.1700.

Draughtsman. Gardens, flowers.

Carbonet was a pupil of Lenôtre and planned numerous gardens.

Article

Richard John

[Carrogis, Louis]

(b Paris, Aug 15, 1717; d Paris, Dec 26, 1806).

French draughtsman, designer and writer. He began his career as tutor to children of nobility, among them those of the Duc de Luynes at the château of Dampierre, where in 1754 he redesigned the park in the English manner. During the Seven Years’ War he worked as a topographical artist for Pons de Saint-Maurice and made portraits and caricatures of the soldiers in his regiment. Pons de Saint-Maurice recommended him to Louis-Philippe, Duc d’Orléans (1725–85), who in 1763 appointed him lecteur to his son Philippe, Duc de Chartres. Carmontelle quickly became involved in all aspects of the ducal household, notably in the theatre; he wrote ‘proverbes’ (playlets illustrating a moral point) for it and supervised their production to his own designs. His texts were published as Proverbes dramatiques between 1768 and 1787, but his illustrations to them remained unpublished until 1933 (original drawings at Chantilly, Mus. Condé). He also recorded the members of the ducal household at the Palais Royal and at Villers-Cotterets in a series of portrait drawings, in pencil and watercolour or gouache. These were made rapidly, often in less than two hours, and almost all show the sitter full-length in profile. They are an invaluable record of both courtiers and distinguished visitors, such as the young ...