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Article

Kirstin Ringelberg

Two related art media, usually commercially distributed, featuring narratives presented in serial text-and-image format, in a Japanese context regarding language, aesthetic, storyline, and/or production. Manga, the print form, is published in weekly and monthly anthology books, with popular individual series sometimes published separately as their success waxes. Anime, the moving form, is found in television, film, and home video formats as well as online and is more globally known; one feature-length example, Spirited Away (Sen to Chihiro no kamikakushi; Studio Ghibli 2001, dir. Hayao Miyazaki), earned billions of dollars and major critical awards worldwide (e.g. Berlin International Film Festival Golden Bear for Best Film in 2002, British Academy Awards Best Animated Feature in 2003, and Academy Film Awards Best Film Not in the English Language in 2004).

With an enormous variety of visual and narrative styles, neither anime nor manga can be identified by a consistent theme or aesthetic, although certain genres and iconography predominate. Generally, a story is initially hand- or computer-drawn, then photographed for printing in book, film, or digital form. Most are serialized narratives having continued for decades, often across platforms; however, some ...

Article

Uruguayan, 19th century, male.

Active also active in Italy.

Born 8 June 1830, in Montevideo; died 15 April 1901, in Pisa, Italy.

Painter, draughtsman, watercolourist. Religious subjects, military subjects, historical subjects, allegorical subjects, figures, local figures, portraits, landscapes, local scenes, animals. Murals.

Juán Manuel Blanes' father was Andalusian and his mother was Argentinian. He was from a humble background and he seems to have learnt to draw and paint by himself. He worked on the newspaper ...

Article

American, 19th–20th century, male.

Born 16 February 1868, in Whitewater, Wisconsin; died 21 October 1952, in Los Angeles, California.

Photographer (photogravure, orotypes), author, filmmaker.

Portraits, landscapes, ethnographic subjects.

Edward Sherriff Curtis began his photographic career as an assistant in a studio in St. Paul, Minnesota, and became a partner in another studio in ...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Active in France and took French nationality.

Born 14 July 1865, in Montevideo (Uruguay).

Watercolourist, engraver (burin/etching).

He trained under G. Buland and Celez, having practiced original engraving. He was a member of the Salon des Artistes Français.

Article

G. Lola Worthington

(Alva)

(b Milan, OH, Feb 11, 1847; d West Orange, NJ, Oct 18, 1931).

American inventor, entrepreneur, film producer and businessman. Edison invented numerous electrically based technologies. His father, Samuel Edison (1804–96), and mother, Nancy Matthews Elliot (1810–71), lived very modestly. Home schooled after he performed poorly in school, his formal educational experience lasted only three months. A shrewd businessman his instinctive abilities combined with his innovative inventions furthered his extensive research. He famously “invented” the first practical incandescent light bulb. Nicknamed the “Wizard of Menlo Park,” he established the first large American industrial research laboratory in Menlo Park, NJ.

Credited with developing predominant technical designs and electrically powered mechanisms for numerous devices, his inventions were instrumental toward the arts. Some principal imaginative, mechanical creations are the phonograph, electrically powered generators, individual home electricity, motion picture cameras and audio recordings. Edison patented his first motion picture camera, the “kinetograph,” and began his foray into film. In 1891 his kinetoscope, which allowed individuals to view short films through a peephole at the top of a cabinet, became highly lucrative. In ...

Article

Uruguayan, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active also active in France.

Born 29 June 1861, in Montevideo, to Italian parents; died 24 July 1938, in Montevideo.

Painter. Genre scenes, local scenes.

A brilliant lawyer, man of public affairs, well-known politician, writer, philosopher, aesthetician and portrayer of the Uruguayan identity through his many activities and through his painting, Pedro Figari played a role of paramount importance in his country's development in the early part of the 20th century and particularly in the 'nativist' movement which stood for maintaining the racial and cultural diversity that created the country of Uruguay....

Article

Italian, 19th century, male.

Active in Genoa.

Painter. Portraits.

Gaetano Gallino was a pupil of Tagliafichi, and for many years lived in Montevideo, Uruguay.

Article

German, 19th century, male.

Born 25 September 1864, in Montevideo (Uruguay); died 1913.

Painter. Genre scenes, harbour scenes.

Grethe, a pupil of Bouguereau and of Robert-Fleury in Paris, also studied at the academy of fine art in Karlsruhe before going on to lecture at the academy of fine art in Stuttgart. He was awarded a bronze medal in ...

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 25 April 1944, in Seattle.

Photographer, video artist. Landscapes, cityscapes.

Doug Hall began his education in Archaeology, completing a BA at Harvard University in 1966. One year later he had completed a course at the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture. He gained an MFA in sculpture at the Rinehart School of Sculpture of the Maryland Institute of Art, Baltimore in ...

Article

Uruguayan, 19th century, male.

Born 26 September 1866, in Montevideo; died 26 August 1902, in Montevideo.

Painter, engraver. Military subjects.

Diogenes Hequet studied in Paris under the painter Truphème and the engraver Tauzin. He became famous in Uruguay for his National Events in which he retraces South America's major historical events....

Article

Lee M. Edwards

(b Waal, Bavaria, May 26, 1849; d Budleigh Salterton, Devon, March 31, 1914).

English painter, illustrator, printmaker, stage designer, film maker, writer and teacher of German birth. He was the only child of Lorenz Herkomer (d 1887), a wood-carver, and Josephine (née Niggl), an accomplished pianist and music teacher. They left Bavaria for the USA in 1851 and lived briefly in Cleveland, OH, before settling in Southampton, England, in 1857.

Herkomer received his first art instruction from his father and from 1864 to 1865 he attended the Southampton School of Art. Later he often criticized the crippling academic methods to which he was exposed as a student. In 1865 he briefly attended the Munich Academy and spent the summer terms of 1866 and 1867 at the South Kensington Art School in London, where he found the teaching ‘aimless and undirected’. With the encouragement of his fellow student Luke Fildes, Herkomer took up black-and-white illustration; his first wood-engraving appeared in Good Words...

Article

Uruguayan, 19th century, male.

Born 19 October 1855, in Montevideo.

Painter.

Domingo Laporte studied under Giovanni Fattori in Florence. He received a commendation in 1889 at the Exposition Universelle in Paris for his Grand Canal, Venice. In 1928 he became the director of the newly-founded Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes in Montevideo....

Article

Uruguayan, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1871, in Montevideo; died 22 May 1910, in Montevideo.

Painter. Seascapes.

Manuel Larravide was self-taught. In his youth he was strongly influenced by the works of Edouard de Martino, a naval painter to the English court who lived for a time in Rio de la Plata. Larravide is closely associated with the early development of art in Uruguay and Argentina. His seascapes were highly successful and can be seen in the museums of Buenos Aires and Montevideo....

Article

Jeffrey Martin

Medium utilizing oxidized metal particles carried on a flexible substrate, in order to record an electronic signal, most commonly in the form of audiotape or videotape. Magnetic tape is also used in computers for the storage of data, but this usage is unlikely to be encountered in an art conservation context.

Magnetic recording tape generally is made up of a plastic film base (most tapes, including all videotapes, have a base of polyester terephthalate (PET)), coated on one side with a binder system containing oxidized metal particles. Often, recording tape will also have what is known as a backcoating on the reverse side, which reduces friction, dissipates the buildup of static electricity, and allows for the tape to be more evenly wound. Some early audiotapes had paper backing, while others may also have a backing of acetate plastic, which is subject to the same deterioration factors as acetate photographic film, including so-called ‘vinegar syndrome’. The binder layer, the most critical component of the recording tape, usually consists of metal particles suspended in a binder of polyester and polyurethane, although it can contain numerous other chemicals. Different manufacturers have used different binder formulations, and changed them frequently over time. For this reason, some tapes may be more subject to deterioration than others of similar age and format. In the 1980s, manufacturers began to produce tapes with no binder polymer, but instead a very thin layer of metal alloy evaporated onto the tape base, known as ‘metal evaporated’ or ME tapes. The binder system may also contain lubricants designed to minimize friction as the tape passes through a recording or playback device....

Article

Spanish, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in Uruguay.

Died 1921, in Montevideo.

Painter, draughtsman, pastellist. Figures, portraits.

Emilio Mas went into exile in Latin America. He was confined to a psychiatric hospital where he executed a series of paintings of mentally ill people. He worked on these each day, ceaselessly modifying the expressions depicted on their faces....

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 8 December 1861; died 1938, in Orly.

Film maker, draughtsman.

Méliès made more than 4,000 films. As a draughtsman, his unusual drawings in a pre-Surrealist spirit were a precursor of animated cartoons.

Lefebvre, Thierry: ‘Méliès la tempête optique’ in ...

Article

Swiss, 19th century, male.

Born 1833, in Lugano (Ticino); died 1861, in Montevideo (Uruguay).

Painter, decorative designer. Stage sets.

Domenico Monteverde was the brother of Luigi Monteverde.

Article

Jeffrey Martin

Medium on which a series of photographic images are recorded on a flexible plastic base in order to produce the illusion of movement when reproduced by projection through a lens or other means. Although ‘film’ has been used by the general public as a catch-all term for any moving image medium, it actually refers specifically to photochemical reproduction.

Three different types of film base have been used in motion picture production. The first, cellulose nitrate, was used from the time it was introduced by Eastman Kodak in 1889, through the early 1950s. Cellulose nitrate was durable, withstood repeated projection, and provided a high-quality image. It was also extremely flammable, requiring careful handling in shipping and storage, and the construction of special fireproof projection booths in theatres. It is always identified by the words ‘Nitrate film’ along one edge. Cellulose acetate film was first made available commercially in 1909, but was inferior in strength to nitrate film, and was not widely adopted for theatrical use. It was, however, used exclusively in smaller-gauge film for home and amateur use by the 1920s. In ...

Article

Spanish, 19th century, male.

Born in Barcelona; died 6 December 1886, in Barcelona.

Sculptor.

Francisco Pagés y Cabañeras decorated the Casa de la Misericordia in Barcelona and the Jesuit church in Montevideo.

Article

Italian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in Uruguay.

Born 1869; died October 1924, in Montevideo.

Painter, decorative artist. Portraits.

Parpagnoli emigrated to South America and settled initially in Buenos Aires, before moving to Montevideo. He worked on the decoration of the Collegio San Michele, part of the Confederazione dell'Oratorio San Filippo Neri in Rome, and painted the portraits of Pope Leo XIII and Queen Elena....