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Article

Flemish, 16th – 17th century, male.

Born in Brussels.

Engraver, draughtsman, jeweller.

Flemish School.

Franz Aspruck was probably a pupil of R. Spranger. A number of plates by Aspruck, bearing the initials F. A., survive: 13 plates after Agostino Caracci and a small allegorical depiction of ...

Article

Alfonso Rodríguez Ceballos

(b Florence, Oct 31, 1604; d Madrid, July 1657).

Italian painter, draughtsman, engineer and stage designer, active also in central Europe and Spain . He was a pupil of Giovanni Bilivert from 1612 to 1620 and studied with Giulio Parigi. In 1622 he went to Vienna as assistant to Giovanni Pieroni da Galliano and thence to Prague, where he decorated the chapel (1630) with frescoes with scenes from the Life of St Wenceslas and the Life of the Virgin, the Knight’s Hall (destr.; rest. 1853) with ceiling frscoes including Albrecht von Wallenstein as Mars, and he worked on other parts of the Wallenstein Palace (see Prague, §IV, 7). He is documented in 1625 in Florence, where he became a teacher of perspective drawing. In 1626–7 the Medici employed him as military engineer at the fortress at Livorno; here, with Stefano della Bella, he drew harbour and river scenes (e.g. Peasants Waiting on a Quay, Florence, Uffizi). Baccio executed frescoes in Florentine palazzi, and his contributions to the decoration of the Casa Buonarotti include three ...

Article

Philippe Rouillard

(b Douai, c. 1470; d Douai, between June 1535 and March 1536).

South Netherlandish painter and designer. His father, George Bellegambe, a cabinetmaker and musician, was a prominent citizen of Douai. Jean is first mentioned in a document of 1504, when he is referred to as a master painter, a burgher and married. His teacher is unknown, but his work bears some imprint of the art of Jan Provoost, who inherited Simon Marmion’s studio. However, Bellegambe might equally have been apprenticed in Bruges or Brussels (possibly in the atelier of the Master of the Legend of St Mary Magdalen, for example), or even in Antwerp. The calm and serenity of Bellegambe’s compositions, his treatment of landscape, his lightness of technique, his pursuit of clear, soft colours and delicate harmonies all indicate links with the work of Gérard David and Quinten Metsys. In the 17th century Bellegambe was known as ‘the Master of Colours’.

Bellegambe executed many altarpieces for the churches of Douai and nearby abbeys, as well as designing numerous costumes and embroideries. Many of his commissions are well documented. Around ...

Article

(b Modena, c. 1490; d London, ?Feb 15, 1569).

Italian stuccoist, sculptor, painter and costume designer, active in France and England. He worked in France as a painter (1515–22), probably under Jean Perréal and Jean Bourdichon, then in Mantua, possibly under Giulio Romano, possibly calling himself ‘da Milano’. By 1532 he was at Fontainebleau and in 1533 was engaged with Francesco Primaticcio on the stuccoes and painting of the Chambre du Roi and was one of the highest paid of his collaborators. He may also have worked on the Galerie François I. He was described in 1534 as sculpteur et faiseur de masques and in 1535 made masquerade costumes for the wedding of the Comte de Saint-Pol. He was later involved in a fraud and by August 1537 was in England, where he settled. By 1540 Bellin was employed at Whitehall Palace, probably on making stucco chimneypieces, including that in the privy chamber. The following year he and his company of six were working on the slate carvings at ...

Article

French, 17th century, male.

Active in Strasbourg.

Draughtsman. Costume studies.

Article

Bohemian, 17th century, male.

Born 23 July 1607, in Prague; died 25 March 1677, in London.

Engraver, reproductions engraver, draughtsman, watercolourist, illustrator. Historical subjects, portraits, urban landscapes, landscapes, animals, costume studies. Maps.

Bohemian School.

Wenceslaus Hollar was the son of a clerk at the court of justice in Prague, and his family intended him to take up a legal career. However, he left Prague in 1627 and settled in Frankfurt, where he became a pupil of Matthaus Merian the Elder, from whom he learned the art of cartography. He travelled across Germany, making numerous drawings and engravings of the towns he visited. After stays in Strasbourg, Frankfurt and Mainz, he met the Earl of Arundel, English ambassador to Ferdinand III, in Cologne and returned with him to Prague. From there he accompanied him to Vienna and finally to England, where he arrived in 1637....

Article

French, 17th century, male.

Painter. Local figures, local scenes, costume studies.

Georges de La Chappelle came from Caen. He was active between 1638 and 1648. He accompanied the French ambassadors to the sultan of Constantinople, where he produced portraits of this king's most famous favourites, which were published in ...

Article

E. S. Welch

(fl 1450–75).

Italian painter. A minor but prolific Milanese artist, he first appears as a creditor of the Borromeo family in Milan in 1450 and 1451. The following year, several letters addressed to Duke Francesco Sforza (reg 1450–66) show him as painter primarily of pennants and horse trappings. Moretti continued to work for the Sforza family during the 1450s. In 1462, however, he was banished from Milan for writing a defamatory letter about the wife of the court physician Cristoforo da Soncino.

Documents after 1463 indicate that the artist then moved into the nearby region of Piedmont, where he painted coats of arms and the communal tower in Turin. In 1467 he decorated a chapel in Casale Monferrato for William VI, Margrave of Monferrat (reg 1464–83), and three years later he provided an altarpiece for S Marco, Vercelli. He left incomplete fresco decorations in this same church when he returned to Milan in ...

Article

(b Albino, ?1520–24; d Albino, ?after March 5, 1578).

Italian painter. He was the most significant painter of the 16th-century school of Bergamo and is best known for his portraits, which feature a naturalistic rendering of both faces and costume and an objective approach to character.

A document dated 6 March 1549 refers to Moroni as an administrative procurator, which implies that he was then at least 25 years old. He was trained in Brescia, in the workshop of Moretto. Moroni’s religious paintings, particularly the early works, are characterized by explicit borrowings from Moretto’s pictures. Two drawings by Moroni (both 1543; Brescia, Pin. Civ. Tosio–Martinengo), his first securely dated works, show figures of saints copied from paintings by Moretto. It is likely that Moroni collaborated with the Brescian painter in some of his works: for instance, some scholars have identified his hand in Moretto’s St Roch and the Angel (Budapest, Mus. F.A.) and the Coronation of the Virgin (Brescia, S Angelo). Others have attributed outright to Moroni paintings once given to ...

Article

Dutch, 16th – 17th century, male.

Born 1555, in Utrecht; died 1613 or 1614, in Prague.

Painter, engraver, draughtsman, medallist, goldsmith, jeweller.

Munich School, Prague School.

Paulus van Vianen was the pupil of his father Willem Ezestensz. van Vianen, a medal maker and goldsmith, and of Cornelius Flertz or Elertz. He first travelled to Florence and then came to Munich in 1596 where he became a master in 1599. He was appointed jeweller to Emperor Rudolph II....

Article

Dutch, 17th century, male.

Died 1616, in Amsterdam.

Painter, jeweller.