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Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1944, in Paris.

Installation artist, photographer, film maker, novelist. Multimedia.

Alain Fleischer studied French, linguistics and anthropology at university, and has taught at the University of Paris III, at the École d'Art de Cergy, at the Institut des Hautes Études Cinématographiques, and the École Nationale d'Art de Nice (the Villa Arson). He served as head of the École Expérimentale d'Art Contemporain du Fresnoy, in Tourcoing....

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 27 September 1965, in Billings (Montana).

Installation artist, performance artist, video artist, writer. Multimedia.

Andrea Fraser studied at the School for Visual Arts (1982(1983) and at the Whitney Museum of American Art Independent Study Program, New York (...

Article

Catherine M. Grant and Margaret Rose Vendryes

(b Cleveland, OH, 1959).

American printmaker, film maker, installation and conceptual artist and writer.

Green, of African descent, has worked primarily with film-based media, and has published criticism and designed installations that reveal her commitment to ongoing feminist and black empowerment movements. She earned her BA from Wesleyan University in 1981 and also spent some time at the School of Visual Arts in New York in 1980, returning in the late 1980s to study in the Whitney Independent Study Program, graduating in 1990. At the age of 24 she began exhibiting her comparative compositions containing found objects, images, and texts that question recorded history.

Green’s work deals with issues of anthropology and travel. By undertaking projects via the methodology of the 19th-century explorer, she exposed the arbitrary and prejudiced nature of classification, as in Bequest (1991; see 1993 exh. cat.), an installation she made at the invitation of the Worcester Museum of Art to commemorate their 50th anniversary. Using the museum as a ready-made stage set, she installed works of art alongside 19th-century texts explaining stereotypes of whiteness and blackness. Green characteristically intervened in the history of her chosen site to produce a fiction that included her own responses as an African American woman to her findings. In ...

Article

Catherine M. Grant

(b San Francisco, CA, May 14, 1962).

American video artist, film maker, installation artist and writer. She studied Art History at New York University, graduating with a BA in 1984. She then studied for an MFA at the Art Center College of Design, Pasadena, CA, graduating in 1990. In 1989 she began to make indices as a way of restructuring and re-presenting narratives, with the private view cards for most of her shows consisting of an index of the content of the exhibition. In one of her first major video installations, Oo Fifi, Five Days in Claude Monet’s Garden (1992; see 1996 exh. cat.), she played with the three colours of video, disrupting the imagery of the flowers that covered the walls of the exhibition space by splitting the image and fitting it back together to reveal its structure. Throughout the 1990s, Thater made installations that challenged assumptions about what is natural, with her subject-matter often featuring domesticated animals performing tricks, as in the large-scale work ...

Article

Marita Sturken

Culture of images and visuality that creates meaning in our world today. This includes media forms such as photography, film, television, and digital media; art media such as painting, drawing, prints, and installations; architecture and design; comic books and graphic novels; fashion design, and other visual forms including the look of urban life itself. It also encompasses such social realms as art, news, popular culture, advertising and consumerism, politics, law, religion, and science and medicine. The term visual culture also refers to the interdisciplinary academic field of study that aims to study and understand the role that images and visuality play in our society; how images, gazes, and looks make meaning socially, culturally, and politically; how images are integrated with other media; and how visuality shapes power, meaning, and identity in contemporary global culture.

The emergence of the concept of visual culture as a means to think about the role of images in culture and as an academic field of study is a relatively recent phenomenon, emerging in the late 1980s and becoming established by the late 1990s. There were numerous factors that contributed to the idea that images should be understood and analysed across social arenas rather than as separate categories, including the impact of digital media on the circulation of images across social realms, the modern use of images from other social arenas (such as news and advertising) in art, and the cross-referencing of cultural forms displayed in popular culture and art. It was also influenced by the increasingly visible role played by images in political conflict and a general trend toward interdisciplinarity in academia....