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Israeli, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1951.

Photographer. Multimedia.

A theorist and art and philosophy critic, he is also an editor and artist.

He takes part in group exhibitions, notably Implicit Connections in 1997 at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris.

Article

Jonathan Lipkin

The process of creating, storing, manipulating, and displaying photographic images through electronic devices such as digital cameras, computers, and printers. By the late 20th century digital technology had largely replaced traditional chemical photographic processes. That digital photographs are easier to produce, manipulate, and distribute than their analogue predecessors has led to significant changes to vernacular, artistic, and commercial photographic practices. The boundaries of what constitutes Photography—once defined quite clearly through its optical and chemical nature—have also expanded, to the point where many question whether digital photography is an incremental step in the evolution of the medium, or a radical leap into an entirely new form of image production.

While a traditional photograph is an image embodied in physical form, a digital photograph exists as a computer file that describes the image. Most digital photographs today are composed of bitmaps, grids filled with numbers that represent the colour and tonal characteristics of each square, which is called a pixel. Most commonly, each pixel is described by three numbers that can range from 0 to 255 (or 2...

Article

John-Paul Stonard

[Höllinger, Waltraud]

(b Linz, 1940).

Austrian film maker, video artist, photographer and performance artist. After studies in Linz and Vienna (1955–64) and work as a script girl, film editor and film extra (1965–8), she signalled her decision to follow a career as an artist by changing her name to Valie Export (a combination of the abbreviated form of her forename and a reference to a popular brand of cheap Austrian cigarettes, ‘Austria Export’). The provocative and politically engaged stance she then developed in her work constituted a relentless exploration of feminist issues and a wish for direct social change as a result of her activities as an artist. In one of her best-known earlier works, Genital Panic (1969), originally an impromptu performance in a Munich cinema, she confronted audience members wearing trousers exposing her genitals. This work was later made into a photographic poster depicting the artist wearing the same confrontational apparel, sporting a wild hair-do and holding a gun. Agitational erotic interaction had also featured in a well-known street performance of the same year, ...