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Japanese, 17th century, male.

Born 1608; died 1646.


Isshi was a Zen monk who studied the Zen doctrine with Takuan. He painted portraits, and was also responsible for the restoration of the Yamagani temple at Omi (modern Shiga Prefecture).


Japanese, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1847; died 1915.

Painter, print artist. Historical subjects, figures, genre scenes, still-lifes.

Kiyochika was the son of a low-ranking samurai who lost his inheritance after the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Largely self-taught, he especially admired the prints of Hiroshige (...


Stephen L. Little

[Jen Jen-fa; zi Ziming; hao Yueshan Daoren]

(b Qinglongzhen [now Qingpu, Songjiang, Shanghai Municipality], 1255; d 1328).

Chinese painter. Under the Yuan dynasty (1279–1368) he became an official, rising to the level of Vice-President of the River Conservation Bureau. He was famous for his paintings of horses, which were much admired by both his Mongol and Chinese patrons. In horse painting he followed in the tradition of the Song-period (960–1279) artist Li Gonglin, which was characterized by use of the ‘iron-wire’ line and a minimum of shading. Ultimately, however, Ren’s style can be traced to the Tang (ad 618–907) painters Yan Liben and Han Gan.

Ren’s earliest surviving painting is dated 1280, indicating that he was a mature artist by his mid-twenties. Although he worked as an official under the alien Mongol emperors, he was capable of paintings that incorporated clear political messages. The most famous is Fat and Lean Horses (Beijing, Pal. Mus.), in which, according to his inscription, the fat horse represents the self-satisfied, wealthy official and the lean one the humble, poor, self-deprecating official. Most extant works by Ren are depictions of horses, but ...


Turkish, 20th – 21st century, female.

Active in France.

Born 1953, in Istanbul.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtswoman, sculptor, mixed media, performance artist.

Art Brut.

Art-Cloche Group.

Saban studied restoration in Istanbul, sculpture in Tel Aviv and painting in Haifa, and from 1977 to 1980 at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. She was a member of the ...



Michael D. Willis

[Sāñcī; anc. Kākaṇāya; Kākaṇāva; Kākanādaboṭa; Botaśrīparvata]

Buddhist site in Madhya Pradesh, India, 70 km from Bhopal, best known for three well-preserved stupas, part of a group of 51 monuments dating from the 3rd century bc to the 13th century ad. A full excavation and conservation effort was undertaken at Sanchi by John Marshall in 1912–19, bringing the monuments to their present condition. Marshall numbered the monuments 1 to 50, retaining most of the numbering allocated by Alexander Cunningham in a survey carried out in the mid-19th century. An additional monastery (51) was excavated in 1936. Since that time a Buddhist temple in an ‘Indo-revival’ style has been built on the hill, and the site’s Archaeological Museum constructed near the railway station.

Sanchi does not seem to have been the focus of any event in the life of the Buddha or his immediate followers. It prospered largely because it met the requirements for an ideal Buddhist retreat: situated on a hill 90 m high, it was a place of beauty and tranquillity not far from the commercial and political centre of Vidisha. The earliest possible reference to Sanchi is in the ...