Islamic dynasty that ruled from several capitals in Iraq between
Islamic dynasty that ruled from several capitals in Iraq between
Islamic dynasty that ruled parts of north-west Africa and Spain from 1130 to 1269. Muhammad ibn Tumart (d 1130), a Masmuda Berber, preached a faith based on the Koran and the Sunna, stressing above all the oneness of God (Arab. tawḥīd), a doctrine from which the movement took the name al-Muwaḥḥidūn (‘believers in the oneness of God’). Ibn Tumart, who declared himself also as the infallible Mahdí, was able to unite disparate groups of Berbers and in 1121 began an insurrection against the Almoravid rulers with the help of the Berbers of the Atlas Mountains. After the conquest of the Anti-Atlas and Sus region, he emigrated to Tinmal (Tinmallal), south of Marrakesh in the High Atlas, an event likened to the Prophet’s Hegira from Mecca to Medina in
Islamic dynasty that ruled parts of the Sahara, Morocco, Algeria and Spain from 1056 to 1147. The Sanhaja Berber chief Yahya ibn Ibrahim, on returning from a pilgrimage to Mecca, founded a reform movement intended to strengthen orthodoxy among the Saharan Berbers, who were only superficially Islamisized, but according to many Arab historiographers they adhered to Kharijite doctrine. With the support of the Malikite jurist Ibn Yasin and the Lamtuna Berber chiefs Yahya ibn ‛Umar and his brother Abu Bakr, a fortress for a Muslim brotherhood (Arab. ribāṭ) was established on an island at the mouth of the Senegal River. The fortress soon became a centre for the tribes living nearby, and the increasing power of those who lived there (al-murābiṭūn) led to the submission of all the Sanhaja tribes. Their renewal of Islam showed strong ascetic trends along with a simple piety that resulted in a holy war against the corrupt culture and errant Muslims of the Maghrib. In ...
Islamic dynasty that ruled in south-east Anatolia from 1098 to 1408. The Artuqids were descendants of a Turkoman military commander in the service of the Saljuq dynasty; his family settled in Diyarbakır and carved out two principalities, one in Diyarbakır and the other in Mardin and Mayyafariqin. The branch in Diyarbakır fell to the Ayyubid dynasty in 1232, but the other branch survived, sometimes in vassalage, until it was extinguished by the Qaraqoyunlu dynasty. In the 12th century the Artuqids battled against the crusader County of Edessa; it was an Artuqid who took captive Baldwin at Harran in 1104.
Four large Artuqid congregational mosques survive, at Diyarbakır, Mardin, Mayyafariqin (now Silvan) and Dunaysir (now Kızıltepe), all with plans based on that of the Great Mosque of Damascus (see Islamic art, §II, 5(ii)(e)). The one at Diyarbakır (12th century) has a courtyard in the Classical revival style then in vogue in Syria, but the other buildings, of the late 12th century and early 13th, show a synthesis of Syrian and Anatolian decoration, as does the architectural style of the Saljuq dynasty of Anatolia. This style is continued at Mardin in the Sultan ‛Isa Madrasa (...
Islamic dynasty that ruled 1169–1252 in Egypt, 1180s–1260 in Syria and south-east Anatolia, and 1174–1229 in the Yemen, with minor branches continuing until the end of the 15th century. The Ayyubids were the Kurdish clan brought to power in 1169 by Salah al-Din (Saladin; reg 1169–93) and his nephew Shirkuh when they occupied Egypt on behalf of the Zangid family ruler of Damascus, Nur al-Din (reg 1146–74). Shirkuh soon died, and Salah al-Din became master of Egypt. He ended the Shi‛ite Fatimid dynasty of Egypt in 1171 and brought Aleppo and Damascus under his control in 1183 and 1186. Salah al-Din is best known in both East and West as a tireless foe of the crusaders, and for his liberation of Jerusalem in 1187. The Ayyubid lands were governed by leading members of his family. The sultan ruling in Cairo was paramount, and Damascus was the second capital, but Ayyubid possessions extended to the Yemen and into Anatolia. The counter-crusade continued throughout the Ayyubid period; notable is the failed treaty between al-Malik al-Kamil (...
(b London, 21 Dec ?1120; d Canterbury, Dec 29, 1170; can Feb 1173; fd 29 Dec).
English archbishop, saint and patron. He was born of bourgeois stock and trained at the schools of Paris. Early in his career he showed a taste for beautiful objects: while still a clerk in the service of Theobald, Archbishop of Canterbury (reg 1138–61), he had an antique gem with a naked Mercury set for use as his private seal (impression in London, N. Archvs). Garnier of Pont-Sainte-Maxence testifies that Becket’s collection of jewels was seized by his murderers. As Chancellor of England (1154–62) he had the means to indulge his taste for magnificence and refined luxury. He also supported the literary activity of his friend John of Salisbury (c. 1115–80): the Policraticus and Metalogicon were dedicated to him in 1159. He was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury in 1162; probably in the following year he saw to the decoration there of the chapel of St Anselm in Canterbury Cathedral with paintings of high quality, of which only ...
In the 20th century, discussion of the relationship between Byzantine art and the art of the Latin West evolved in tandem with scholarship on Byzantine art itself. Identified as the religious imagery and visual and material culture of the Greek Orthodox Empire based at Constantinople between
Monumental, marble paschal Candlestick of the late 12th to early 13th century with reliefs signed by Nicolaus de Angelo and Vassallettus now in S Paolo fuori le Mura, Rome. The imposing column (h. 5.6 m), adorned with six registers of reliefs and surmounted by a fluted candle holder, rests upon a base of sculpted lions, sphinxes, rams and female figures. The upper and lower reliefs bear vegetal and ornamental patterns while the three central registers portray Christ before Caiaphas, the Mocking of Christ, Christ before Pilate, Pilate Washing his Hands, the Crucifixion, the Resurrection and the Ascension. The culminating Easter scenes reflect the paschal candle’s function during the Easter season as a symbol of Christ resurrected, as evoked in an inscription on the base. A second fragmentary inscription refers to the unidentifiable patron’s desire for commemoration. A third inscription identifies Nicolaus de Angelo as the master sculptor and Petrus Vassallettus as playing a secondary role. Both were active in the second half of the 12th to the early 13th century and came from leading families of Roman sculptors: the Vassalletti and Cosmati (Nicolaus’s family). The candlestick is the only work signed by and securely attributed to Nicolaus and the scope of his contribution remains uncertain. A plausible theory attributes the base and first register to Petrus, based upon similarities to works signed by him and ascribed to his family, such as the cloister of S Giovanni in Laterano in Rome and the narthex of S Lorenzo fuori le Mura in Rome. Nicolaus probably executed the Christological scenes, distinguishable for their more dynamic, expressive figures and decorative chisel work, and appropriate for the master sculptor because of their centrality and significance. Early Christian sarcophagi and Carolingian ivories may have provided models for the figural types. This form of paschal candlestick was probably inspired by Roman columnar monuments carved with triumphal scenes....
(b c. 1045; d 1115).
Italian patron. She is now recognized as an extremely influential patron. Her prominence is well documented in the Vita Mathildis (Rome, Vatican, Bib. Apostolica, MS. Lat. 4922), the illuminated biography completed in 1111–12 by her chaplain Donizo. He labelled her ‘the worthy daughter of Peter’, and she is best known for her politics as the staunchest papal supporter in the Investiture Dispute. She was also interested in Cluniac reform. By donating her extensive possessions to the Church, she not only strengthened the Papacy but also helped north Italian cities (especially those under her influence in Emilia-Romagna) in their struggle for independence from the Empire. Matilda’s status as the first promoter of the Italian city-state (comune) is later reflected in Dante’s Divine Comedy, where he elevates Matilda to a place of honour as Beatrice’s guide to Paradise.
Matilda’s involvement in the rebuilding of Modena Cathedral (1099–1106) is well documented and illustrated in the ...
[Cāhamāna; Chahamanas of Rajasthan; Chauhan]
Indian Rajput clan, several branches of which ruled in Rajasthan from medieval times. The earliest Chahamanas originated with Vasudeva, who established himself at Sakambhari, or Sambhar, near Jaipur, in the early 7th century
[Candella; Candrātreya; Candrella]
Dynasty of Rajputs who ruled parts of northern India from the 9th century to the early 14th. The Chandellas were an important regional house that came into prominence with the decline of the imperial Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty in the mid-10th century. Best-known for their patronage of temple architecture at Khajuraho, the Chandellas were at the height of power under Yashovarman (c. 925–54) and Dhangadeva (c. 954–1002). The region they ruled, now called Bundelkhand, is bounded on the north by the River Yamuna, on the east by the River Tons and on the west by the River Betwa. During Chandella times this territory was called Jejakabhukti or Jejakadesha after the ruler Jayashakti (Pkt Jejā or Jejjāka), who ruled c. 865–85. The important centres of Chandella power were Mahoba, Ajayagarh and Kalanjara. The interesting ruins of the fort of Kalanjara have yet to be thoroughly studied.
The earliest known record of the Chandella dynasty is the Lakshmana Temple inscription from ...
Dynasty in south India that was prominent until the 13th century
(b c. 1085; reg 1124–53; d Carlisle, May 24, 1153).
Scottish monarch and patron. He was the sixth and youngest son of Malcolm III (reg 1058–93) and St Margaret (1045–93) and the third of those sons to succeed to the throne of Scotland. After c. 1093 he was educated mainly at the English court. In 1113 his brother-in-law, Henry I of England, married him to England’s richest widow, Matilda (d 1130–31), Countess of Northampton and Huntingdon, and he became Earl of Huntingdon. He was profoundly pious and took a close interest in the Church during a period of fervent reform.
Following the accession of his brother, Alexander I, in Scotland in 1107, David was allowed some authority over the southern parts of the kingdom and in 1113 established at Selkirk a house for the Tironensian Order, the first house in the British Isles for any of the reformed monastic orders. Both before and after he became king in ...
Islamic dynasty that ruled in Ifriqiya (now Tunisia) from