1-20 of 21 results  for:

  • Eighteenth-Century Art x
  • Interior Design and Furniture x
  • Ceramics and Pottery x
Clear all

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Austrian, 18th century, male.

Born in Vienna; died after 1766.

Miniaturist (ivory/porcelain), enameller.

In 1757, Joseph Brecheisen was appointed court painter in Copenhagen. He painted miniatures for gold cases and worked at the Meissen porcelain factory.

Article

French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Painter (including porcelain). Flowers. Decorative schemes.

Louis Chulot worked for the Sèvres porcelain works from 1755 to 1800.

Article

Term used to describe the continuation in the decorative arts of the Neo-classical style (see Neo-classicism) in France between 1800 and 1805 under Napoleon Bonaparte (First Consul; 1799–1804). His Consulate was an era of renewal in the furniture, porcelain and metalwork industries in France (see France, Republic of, §VI, 4), greatly encouraged by the patronage of Napoleon, who sought a model for his position in the magnificence of ancient Rome. While little actual building took place, the period was important for such changes in interior decoration as the lavish use of draperies—begun during the 1790s—that established the Consulate and the Empire styles (for illustration see Empire style); although these terms were invented by later art historians to denote the change in political systems, in fact the styles to which they refer are virtually indistinguishable. Furniture was similar to that of the preceding Directoire style...

Article

Danish, 18th century, male.

Born in Copenhagen; died early 19th century.

Enameller.

Johan Due worked for the royal porcelain factory, where his name appears in the account books for 1782 and 1783. He produced a series of works on enamel entitled The Four Seasons.

Article

Hans Ottomeyer

The name derives from the first French Empire under Napoleon I (see Bonaparte family, §1). The dates defining the period of the Empire historically (1804–14) and the duration of the style itself are at variance: the early phase, referred to by contemporaries as ‘le goût antique’, was a late form of Neo-classicism and became more developed as the chaos resulting from the French Revolution subsided c. 1797. The Directoire style and the Consulate style—terms similarly derived from political periods in France—were both part of the development of the Empire style.

The term was originally applied to architecture, but because Napoleon rejected the building of new castles and palaces as wasteful, the style was especially used in interior design and decoration, later being extended to other decorative arts and fashion. There was strong conscious allusion to the civilization of imperial Rome through the building forms and motifs used by the first Roman emperors, who pursued goals of internal peace and a new order together with an expansionist military policy, as did Napoleon. Personal taste and comfort became of secondary importance to the demonstration of wealth and power. The Empire style spread throughout Europe and acquired fresh impetus with the Napoleonic conquests....

Article

John Wilton-Ely

Type of delicate, painted Neo-classical decoration, derived mainly from the shapes, motifs and colours of antique vases. It was part of the quest in Europe in the last quarter of the 18th century for a contemporary expression in interior design and the applied arts. The term is applied loosely to various schemes of decoration inspired by Classical sources, involving Renaissance Grotesque ornament, as well as themes inspired by discoveries made at Herculaneum and Pompeii (see Pompeii, §VI) in the 18th century, or frequently a mixture of these sources. This fact serves to underline the complex antecedents of this style, which was originally based on the misidentification of imported Greek vases dug up in southern Italy and thought to have been made by ancient Etruscans (see Etruscan §VIII), a culture promoted in some quarters as having been the original fount for the whole of Classical antiquity. Indeed, the Etruscan style derived little direct artistic influence from that culture as such, except for certain potent historical associations promoted by the controversies concerning cultural debts. Initially represented by ...

Article

Damie Stillman

Architectural and decorative arts style that flourished in the USA from shortly after the acknowledgement of independence in the Treaty of Paris (1783) until c. 1820. The term is derived from the period surrounding the creation of the federal constitution in 1787 and was in use in a political sense by that year. Essentially it was a form of Neo-classicism, strongly influenced by manifestations of that style in England and, to a lesser extent, in France; but at times certain more conservative qualities inherited from the previous Colonial period are also present. The inspiration of European, and especially English, Neo-classical architecture was to be expected in a society grounded in that of 18th-century England; but an added impetus was the association often cited at the time between the fledgling American republic and the ancient Roman one.

Although a few indications of European Neo-classical influence are found in the American colonies before the Revolution began in ...

Article

Swiss, 18th century, male.

Born 6 July 1761, in Geneva.

Enameller.

Gide worked at Nyon's porcelain factory.

Article

Liot  

French, 18th century, male.

Active in Paris.

Enameller.

Liot was in charge of the studio of painters and gilders at the Sèvres porcelain works from 1741 to 1749. The Louvre has a snuff-box that he decorated with subjects after Boucher.

Article

Monique Riccardi-Cubitt

Term loosely referring to a decorative style in France that first emerged in the 1750s and was fully developed before Louis XVI succeeded to the throne in 1774. In 1754 the engraver Charles-Nicolas Cochin II (see Cochin family §(2)) appealed to craftsmen for a return to the restraint and discipline of the Antique, an appeal that reflected the larger philosophical and artistic movement of the Enlightenment. Between 1749 and 1751 Cochin undertook a tour of Italy in the company of Abel-François Poisson de Vandières (later the Marquis de Marigny and the future Directeur des Bâtiments du Roi), the architect Jacques-Germain Soufflot and the Abbé Le Blanc, which furthered the interest in the Antique. The discovery of Herculaneum (1738) and Pompeii (1748) was followed by numerous publications on antiquity, among them Cochin’s own work, Observations sur les antiquités de la ville d’Herculanum (Paris, 1754) and ...

Article

Term used for a manifestation of the Neo-classical style initiated in the decorative arts of France during the Second Empire (1852–71) of Napoleon III and his wife, the Empress Eugénie. Based on the standard repertory of Greco-Roman ornament, it combined elements from the Adam, Louis XVI and Egyptian styles with a range of motifs inspired by discoveries at Pompeii, where excavations had begun in 1848; it can be identified by the frequent use of Classical heads and figures, masks, winged griffins, sea-serpents, urns, medallions, arabesques, lotus buds and borders of anthemion, guilloche and Greek fret pattern. Néo-Grec was eclectic, abstracted, polychromatic and sometimes bizarre; it enjoyed popularity as one of the many revival styles of the second half of the 19th century.

In Paris, the Néo-Grec style was best exemplified in the famous ‘Maison Pompéienne’ (1856–8; destr. 1891) designed for Prince Napoléon Bonaparte (see...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

John Wilton-Ely

Term used to describe a variety of attempts in Europe, dating from the second half of the 18th century, to emulate antique Roman interior decoration based on the latest archaeological findings. The dramatic uncovering of the Roman cities of Herculaneum from 1738 and Pompeii from 1748—buried by an eruption of Mt Vesuvius in ad 79—inspired a series of experiments in the design of interiors and furnishings as well as in other areas of the decorative arts. Undoubtedly the most creative phases of the Pompeian Revival occurred during the second half of the 18th century. At that time limited archaeological evidence was finely balanced with imaginative experiment in works by a succession of architects and designers. Owing to the quantity of pictorial wall decorations recovered in the Vesuvian excavations, the revival also exercised a certain influence on easel painting and, to a far lesser degree, on sculpture. However, the phenomenon remained largely confined to interior schemes, losing impetus as the 19th century advanced and eventually becoming one of the many alternative styles of decoration in the historicist repertory....

Article

German, 18th century, male.

Potter, modeller, enameller.

Ponhauser worked in Nymphenburg in 1754. The Bayerisches Nationalmuseum has the set of table china that he made for the marriage of Princess Maria Anna Josepha.

Munich (Bayerisches Nationalmus.)

Article

French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born November or December 1746, in Sarreguemines; died 20 January 1821, in Paris.

Sculptor (clay), engraver. Decorative schemes, medallions, low reliefs.

Jean Martin Renaud featured at the Salon from 1787 to 1817 and he worked on the decorations of the column at Vendôme....

Article

Rococo  

Richard John and Ludwig Tavernier

A decorative style of the early to mid-18th century, primarily influencing the ornamental arts in Europe, especially in France, southern Germany and Austria. The character of its formal idiom is marked by asymmetry and naturalism, displaying in particular a fascination with shell-like and watery forms. Further information on the Rococo can be found in this dictionary within the survey articles on the relevant countries.

Richard John

The nature and limits of the Rococo have been the subject of controversy for over a century, and the debate shows little sign of resolution. As recently as 1966, entries in two major reference works, the Penguin Dictionary of Architecture and the Enciclopedia universale dell’arte (EWA), were in complete contradiction, one altogether denying its status as a style, the other claiming that it ‘is not a mere ornamental style, but a style capable of suffusing all spheres of art’. The term Rococo seems to have been first used in the closing years of the 18th century, although it was not acknowledged by the ...

Article

revised by Margaret Barlow

A renewed interest among artists, writers, and collectors between c. 1820 and 1870 in Europe, predominantly in France, in the Rococo style in painting, the decorative arts, architecture, and sculpture. The revival of the Rococo served diverse social needs. As capitalism and middle-class democracy triumphed decisively in politics and the economy, the affluent and well-born put increasing value on the aristocratic culture of the previous century: its arts, manners and costumes, and luxury goods.

Among the earliest artists in the 19th century to appreciate and emulate 18th-century art were Jules-Robert Auguste (1789–1830), R. P. Bonington, Eugène Delacroix, and Paul Huet. For these young artists the Rococo was a celebration of sensual and sexual pleasure and a product of a free and poetic imagination. Looking particularly at the work of Watteau, they sought to reproduce the Rococo capacity for lyrical grace, its sophisticated understanding of colour, and its open, vibrant paint surfaces in their work. These qualities can be seen in such re-creations of 18th-century scenes as Eugène Lami’s ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1735; d 1807).

French furniture-maker . He became a maître ébéniste in 1765, and thereafter specialized in small consoles of great elegance. The Louvre has a table chiffonnière (late 1760s) with gilt bronze mounts and a Sèvres porcelain top, and also has a pair of commodes (c. 1780) with lacquer decoration.

B. de Rochebouet...

Article

German, 18th century, male.

Born 1678, in Augsburg; died 1754.

Enameller, painter (porcelain/glazed earthenware), engraver (burin), print publisher.

Seutter produced engravings of portraits.