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Article

Michèle Lavallée

[Fr.: ‘new art’]

Decorative style of the late 19th century and the early 20th that flourished principally in Europe and the USA. Although it influenced painting and sculpture, its chief manifestations were in architecture and the decorative and graphic arts, the aspects on which this survey concentrates. It is characterized by sinuous, asymmetrical lines based on organic forms; in a broader sense it encompasses the geometrical and more abstract patterns and rhythms that were evolved as part of the general reaction to 19th-century historicism. There are wide variations in the style according to where it appeared and the materials that were employed.

Art Nouveau has been held to have had its beginnings in 1894 or 1895. A more appropriate date would be 1884, the year the progressive group Les XX was founded in Belgium, and the term was used in the periodical that supported it, Art Moderne: ‘we are believers in Art Nouveau’. The origin of the name is usually attributed to ...

Article

Alan Crawford

Informal movement in architecture and the decorative arts that championed the unity of the arts, the experience of the individual craftsman, and the qualities of materials and construction in the work itself.

The Arts and Crafts Movement developed in the second half of the 19th century and lasted well into the 20th, drawing its support from progressive artists, architects and designers, philanthropists, amateurs, and middle-class women seeking work in the home. They set up small workshops apart from the world of industry, revived old techniques, and revered the humble household objects of pre-industrial times. The movement was strongest in the industrializing countries of northern Europe and in the USA, and it can best be understood as an unfocused reaction against industrialization. Although quixotic in its anti-industrialism, it was not unique; indeed it was only one among several late 19th-century reform movements, such as the Garden City movement, vegetarianism, and folksong revivals, that set the Romantic values of nature and folk culture against the artificiality of modern life....

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1831, in Tours; died 1911, in Tours.

Potter, enameller. Religious furnishings.

School of Tours.

The son of Charles-Jean Avisseau, and uncle to Édouard-Léon, Joseph-Édouard Avisseau was a pupil of his father, and also studied drawing and painting in Lobin's studio. He worked in close collaboration with his father, and shared his taste for the historicist Renaissance movement, veering progressively towards the Baroque. With his father and his sister Caroline, he executed ...

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1 June 1873, in Chicago; died 1953, in Beverly (Massachusetts).

Painter, decorative designer.

Frederick Clay Bartlett studied in Munich and in Paris in the studios of Louis Joseph Collin and Aman-Jean. He took classes with Whistler at his short-lived Paris school before returning to Chicago in ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 14 April 1868, in Hamburg; died 27 February 1940, in Berlin.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver, architect, designer, decorative artist, graphic designer. Posters, furniture, wallpaper, carpets, glassware, ceramics, table services, jewellery, silverwork, objets d'art, typefaces.

Jugendstil, functional school.

Die Sieben (Group of Seven), Deutscher Werkbund...

Article

Swiss, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in Germany.

Born 31 December 1849, in St Gall; died 1921, in Planegg.

Architect, painter, decorative designer, theorist. Designs (furniture/fabrics/metal objects/ceramics).

Jugendstil.

From 1868 to 1871 Hans Eduard von Berlepsch-Valendas was a student of architecture with Gottfried Sempers in Zurich. After graduating he abandoned architecture while he was living in Frankfurt, to go and train as a painter in Munich (...

Article

German, 19th century, male.

Born 26 July 1803, in Berlin; died 16 June 1892, in Berlin.

Painter (including porcelain), watercolourist, decorative designer. Landscapes.

Eduard Biermann was primarily a porcelain painter and decorator. He travelled to Switzerland, Italy and the Tyrol and became one of Berlin's first landscape painters....

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 9 March 1863, in Toulouse; died 20 March 1916.

Sculptor (bronze), decorative designer. Figures, nudes. Statues, equestrian statues, monuments, busts, low reliefs, designs (precious metals/ceramics), decorative schemes, objets d'art.

Art Nouveau.

Maurice Bouval's family was originally from La Coucourde near Montélimar. He studied under Falguière at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where he was awarded numerous medals. He became a member of the Société des Artistes Français and received a bronze medal in ...

Article

French, 19th century, female.

Born in Paris.

Enameller.

A pupil of Mme de Cool, she often exhibited at the Salon. Her notable works include Pope Pius IX (enamel, 1874), The Straight and Narrow after Hugues Merle (porcelain, 1875), an Adoration of the Magi...

Article

Polish, 19th – 20th century, female.

Sculptor, decorative designer.

Broniewska showed a plaster, Slave, and several ceramics in collaboration with Henri-Samuel Arnaud, at the Salon d'Automne in 1913. She had previously exhibited several busts at the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts.

Article

Swiss, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1838, in Geneva; died 1902, in Etrembières, near Geneva.

Painter, watercolourist, potter, enameller. Military subjects, genre scenes, figures, portraits. Panoramas, decorative panels.

Trained by Barthélemy Menn in Geneva, Édouard Castres moved to Paris in 1868, where he studied under Zamacoïs at the École des Beaux-Arts. He exhibited his work in Geneva and at the Salon in Paris. He became a teacher and was awarded medals in Paris and Vienna....

Article

Swiss, 19th century, female.

Born in Geneva.

Painter, watercolourist, ceramicist.

A pupil of Castres, Hébert, Terrier and Bouguereau, Mathilde Cellérier exhibited in Geneva. She was noted as a decorator of ceramics.

Neuchâtel: a work

Paris, 1898: Perspective of a Monument (...

Article

(b Lyon, 1798; d Paris, June 16, 1838).

French painter, designer and interior decorator. Throughout his career he was an advocate of the importance of art and design for industry and manufacture. In 1830 he was appointed adviser to the Sèvres Porcelain Factory by the director Alexandre Brongniart (1770–1847). There Chenavard made cartoons for stained-glass windows, a stoneware ‘Vase de la Renaissance’ shown at the 1833 Sèvres exhibition and designs for the Duc d’Orléans (future King Louis-Philippe), such as a silver-gilt ewer made by M. Durant and shown at the 1834 Paris Exposition Universelle. Chenavard exhibited designs at the Paris Salons of 1827, 1831, 1833 and 1834, among them his Gothic-style designs, in collaboration with Achille Mascret, for the decoration of the chapel at the château of Eu, and his sketches for the restoration of the Théâtre Français and Opéra Comique in Paris. Material by Chenavard is preserved in the Musée National de Céramique at Sèvres and the ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Flensburg, March 6, 1866; d Wiesbaden, Jan 5, 1945).

German designer. After an early career as an interior designer he turned to the design of tapestries (subsequently woven at the Scherbeker Kunstgewerbeschule), porcelain (table wares), drinking glasses (for the Theresienthaler Kristallglasfabrik) and silver cutlery. After 1914 he worked primarily as a painter and writer.

M. Zimmermann-Degen and H. Christiansen...

Article

French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Painter (including porcelain). Flowers. Decorative schemes.

Louis Chulot worked for the Sèvres porcelain works from 1755 to 1800.

Article

Term used to describe the continuation in the decorative arts of the Neo-classical style (see Neo-classicism) in France between 1800 and 1805 under Napoleon Bonaparte (First Consul; 1799–1804). His Consulate was an era of renewal in the furniture, porcelain and metalwork industries in France (see France, Republic of, §VI, 4), greatly encouraged by the patronage of Napoleon, who sought a model for his position in the magnificence of ancient Rome. While little actual building took place, the period was important for such changes in interior decoration as the lavish use of draperies—begun during the 1790s—that established the Consulate and the Empire styles (for illustration see Empire style); although these terms were invented by later art historians to denote the change in political systems, in fact the styles to which they refer are virtually indistinguishable. Furniture was similar to that of the preceding Directoire style...

Article

Christopher Newall

(b Liverpool, Aug 15, 1845; d Horsham, W. Sussex, March 14, 1915).

English painter, illustrator, designer, writer and teacher. He showed artistic inclinations as a boy and was encouraged to draw by his father, the portrait painter and miniaturist Thomas Crane (1808–59). A series of illustrations to Tennyson’s The Lady of Shalott (Cambridge, MA, Harvard U., Houghton Lib.) was shown first to Ruskin, who praised the use of colour, and then to the engraver William James Linton, to whom Crane was apprenticed in 1859. From 1859 to 1862 Crane learnt a technique of exact and economical draughtsmanship on woodblocks. His early illustrative works included vignette wood-engravings for John R. Capel Wise’s The New Forest: Its History and its Scenery (1862).

During the mid-1860s Crane evolved his own style of children’s book illustration. These so-called ‘toy books’, printed in colour by Edmund Evans, included The History of Jenny Wren and The Fairy Ship. Crane introduced new levels of artistic sophistication to the art of illustration: after ...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 29 September 1838, in Limoges; died 1900.

Painter, draughtsman, watercolourist, enameller.

He was the older brother of Pierre-Adrien and was an art teacher and teacher of painting on porcelain at the public school in Limoges from 1867 to 1880. From ...

Article

Joellen Secondo

(b Peckham Rye, London, Jan 29, 1845; d London, April 18, 1910).

English designer and writer. He was educated in France and Germany, but his interest in design was provided by visits to the South Kensington Museum, London (now the Victoria & Albert Museum). In 1865 he entered the office of Lavers & Barraud, glass painters and designers. Some time later he became keeper of cartoons at Clayton & Bell and by 1870 had joined Heaton, Butler & Bayne, for whom he worked on the decoration of Eaton Hall, Ches. In late 1880 Day started his own business designing textiles, wallpapers, stained glass, embroidery, carpets, tiles, pottery, furniture, silver, jewellery and book covers. He designed tiles for Maw & Co. and Pilkington’s Tile and Pottery Co., stained glass and wallpaper for W. B. Simpson & Co., wallpapers for Jeffrey & Co. and textiles for Turnbull & Stockdale where he was made Art Director in 1881.

Day was a founder-member and Secretary of the ...

Article

Polish, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1866, in Lubaczów; died 1924, in Cracow.

Painter, draughtsman, illustrator, decorative artist, ceramicist, sculptor, designer. Portraits, genre scenes, landscapes. Furniture.

Symbolism, Art Nouveau.

Debicki studied at the Akademie der bildenden Künste in Vienna from 1881 to 1884, then in Munich, Paris, Lemberg (now Lviv, Ukraine) and Cracow. He first settled in Lemberg and began teaching in ...