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Article

Christine Mullen Kreamer

(b Jan 25, 1930; d Lomé, Jan 4, 2010).

Togolese painter, sculptor, engraver, stained glass designer, potter and textile designer. Beginning in 1946, he received his secondary education in Dakar, where he also worked in an architecture firm. He travelled to France and received his diplôme supérieur from the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris. A versatile artist, Ahyi is best known for his murals and for monumental stone, marble and cement public sculptures. His work reflects the fusion of his Togolese roots, European training and an international outlook, and he counts among his influences Moore, Braque, Modigliani, Tamayo, Siqueiros and Tall. His work combines ancient and modern themes and materials, maternity being a prominent topic. The messages of his larger, public pieces operate on a broad level to appeal to the general populace, while smaller works often reflect his private engagement with challenges confronting the human condition. His compositions are both abstract and figurative and evoke the heroism and hope of the two world wars, Togo's colonial period and the struggle for independence from France, as well as the political efforts of the peoples of Vietnam, South Africa and Palestine. Ahyi has won numerous international prizes, including the prize of the city of Lyon (...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 27 January 1922, in Aix-en-Provence; died October 1995.

Sculptor, ceramicist. Architectural integration, monuments.

Jean Amado studied drawing and painting from 1940-1941. He then joined the Resistance against the German occupation until 1944 - first in Aix, then in the department of Drôme. In ...

Article

Trevor Proudfoot

Material most commonly used as a cheaper alternative to stone. Occasionally, its special properties make it a preferred but more expensive choice to stone. In its simplest form, artificial stone is an ashlar covering for buildings (e.g. 18th-century terraced houses by John Nash). It is found in its most sophisticated form as the component of numerous 19th-century terracotta or cement-based sculptures.

The earliest and simplest form of artificial stone is the lime-and-gypsum plaster used to decorate the walls of Egyptian tombs. These facings were predominantly of gypsum plaster lined and painted to simulate the texture of stone. In ancient Rome, renders (first coats of plaster) had a similar design and purpose, although they were applied to a wider variety of buildings. The incorporation of lime, pozzolana, additives of volcanic ash, sherds of pottery and brick dust strengthened the mortars and gave them greater durability. The renders were often painted to increase the illusion that actual stone was used (...

Article

Hungarian, 20th century, male.

Active in Belgium.

Born in Budapest.

Sculptor, ceramicist. Architectural integration.

Ildiko Balas studied at the academies in Budapest and in Brussels.

Article

Bauhaus  

Rainer K. Wick

[Bauhaus Berlin; Bauhaus Dessau, Hochschule für Gestaltung; Staatliches Bauhaus in Weimar]

German school of art, design and architecture, founded by Walter Gropius. It was active in Weimar from 1919 to 1925, in Dessau from 1925 to 1932 and in Berlin from 1932 to 1933, when it was closed down by the Nazi authorities. The Bauhaus’s name referred to the medieval Bauhütten or masons’ lodges. The school re-established workshop training, as opposed to impractical academic studio education. Its contribution to the development of Functionalism in architecture was widely influential. It exemplified the contemporary desire to form unified academies incorporating art colleges, colleges of arts and crafts and schools of architecture, thus promoting a closer cooperation between the practice of ‘fine’ and ‘applied’ art and architecture. The origins of the school lay in attempts in the 19th and early 20th centuries to re-establish the bond between artistic creativity and manufacturing that had been broken by the Industrial Revolution. According to Walter Gropius in ...

Article

Valerie Holman

(b Mennecy, Seine-et-Oise, Feb 3, 1895; d Paris, June 6, 1979).

French painter, sculptor, draughtsman, graphic artist, ceramicist and tapestry designer. He attended the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs, Paris, from 1911, until he joined the army in 1915. After World War I he devoted himself primarily to painting. In 1922 he met Juan Gris with whose encouragement his early Matisse-influenced rhythmical compositions acquired greater stability. In the late 1920s he was promoted by Tériade as a successor to the Cubists, with such works as The Mirror (1929; Paris, Pompidou), in which a highly simplified figure and its mirror-image are defined by patches of flat colour and fragments of linear contrast, and by the 1940s he was seen as one of the major representatives of the Ecole de Paris. In the 1950s his earlier predilection for curvilinear shapes gave way to a more angular and dynamic geometry, as in the First Race (1952; Paris, Pompidou). His subject-matter was taken from daily life, with marked preferences for the nude in movement, as in ...

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1928, in Bruges.

Sculptor.

Beirens was a student at the school of St Luke in Shaerbeek. He practises direct carving and works with metal and terracotta. He was a professor at the provincial institute of architecture and applied arts in Hasselt....

Article

Ingrid Sattel Bernardini

(b Gotha, Dec 27, 1725; d Vienna, March 23, 1806).

German sculptor, painter and architect. He was the son of a court gardener who worked first in Gotha and then in Württemberg. He was originally intended to become an architect; in 1747 Duke Charles-Eugene of Württemberg sent him to train in Paris where, under the influence of painters such as Charles-Joseph Natoire and François Boucher, he turned to painting. The eight-year period of study in Rome that followed prompted Beyer to devote himself to sculpture, as he was impressed by antique works of sculpture and was also influenced by his close contacts with Johann Joachim Winckelmann and his circle. He also served an apprenticeship with Filippo della Valle, one of the main representatives of the Neo-classical tendency in sculpture. In 1759 Beyer returned to Germany, to take part in the decoration of Charles-Eugene’s Neues Schloss in Stuttgart.

In Stuttgart Beyer made an important contribution to the founding and improvement of facilities for the training of artists, notably at the Akademie, and to manufacture in the field of arts and crafts, particularly at the ...

Article

French, 17th century, male.

Born 4 November 1608, in Le Mans; died 1671, in Angers.

Sculptor (terracotta), architect. Religious subjects, figures. Statues, groups.

Pierre Biardeau was the son of René II Biardeau. He went to live in Angers in 1638. He was in Luçon in ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Potter, sculptor, architect. Jewellery.

Jugendstil.

Hermann Robert Bichweiler was active between 1872 and 1893 in Hamburg, where he had his own studio. His ornaments are characteristic of a specific style peculiar to Hamburg.

Hamburg (Mus. für Kunst und Gewerbe)

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1863, in Ars-sur-Moselle; died 1937, in Nancy, in 1913 according to some sources.

Sculptor (stone/marble/bronze), medallist, potter. Figures, architectural views. Monuments, low reliefs, statues, busts.

Art Nouveau.

School of Nancy.

Ernest Bussière exhibited in Paris at the Salon des Artistes Français, where he received an honourable mention in ...

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 11 January 1911, in Tournai; died 1996.

Sculptor (metal), ceramicist, engraver, lithographer. Stage sets, designs for tapestries, architectural integration.

Pierre Caille attended evening classes at the academy in Tournai, and in 1929-1930 worked in Joris Minne's workshop at the École d'Architecture et des Arts Decoratifs in Brussels, founded by Henry van de Velde in ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 15 July 1939, in Puteaux (Hauts-de-Seine).

Sculptor. Architectural views.

Champagne settled in Honfleur. He works with pottery or earthenware clay; he himself controls the production of chamottes (fired clays), and uses techniques of uneven firing and smoking. Inspired by architectural features from the 12th to the 19th centuries, he uses his imagination to recreate ornamental 'Fragments of Architecture', as he terms them, often peopled with tiny statues. Since ...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 1892, in Florence; died 1974, in Paris.

Painter, sculptor, potter, illustrator. Figures, landscapes.

Colucci studied architecture at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, and then left to work in Cairo. In 1917, he travelled to Africa and began to paint. He returned to Paris in 1919, where he exhibited for the first time. He exhibited etchings at the Salon d'Automne and the Surindépendants, and his works were hung amongst those of Gleizes, Herbin, Delaunay, Duchamp-Villon, Férat and Survage. In 1929, he took up pottery in Aubagne. In 1939, he belonged to the ...

Article

Italian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 14 November 1949, in Morro d'Alba (province of Ancona, Marche).

Sculptor, draughtsman, painter, mixed media, potter. Figures, landscapes, architectural views.

Transavanguardia.

Enzo Cucchi is 'the third C' of the Italian Transavangardia movement, with Sandro Chia and Francesco Clemente. He spent some time at the school in Macerata working in conceptual art and also as a restorer. He lives and works in Ancona and Rome....

Article

Italian, 16th century, male.

Born 1530, in Perugia; died 1576, in Perugia.

Painter, sculptor (bronze/marble/cast iron/clay), draughtsman, goldsmith, architect. Religious subjects, historical subjects, mythological subjects. Groups, statues, low reliefs.

Vincenzo Danti was the brother of Girolamo and Egnazio Danti. He worked initially in the goldsmiths' trade, in whose guild he enrolled in ...

Article

Danish, 18th century, male.

Born 23 December 1711, of German origin; died 16 July 1761, in Kastrup.

Sculptor, potter, architect.

Jakob Fortling was a court sculptor in Copenhagen, where he founded a porcelain factory in 1760.

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Sculptor.

Together with the architect Lemesle, Henri Gaullier produced a Neo-Gothic altarpiece (1866) for the church of St-Martin in Tassillé, to which was added a terracotta low relief of unknown origin representing the Adoration of the Shepherds.

Article

Italian, 15th century, male.

Active in Parma.

Sculptor, architect.

Gigliolo is known for his terracotta pieces for the Stations of the Cross at the church of Santa Croce at Parma.

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active from 1933 active in Switzerland.

Born 4 May 1874, in Hörde (Westphalia); died 18 July 1949, in Interlaken or Beatenberg (Canton of Bern).

Sculptor (including bronze/majolica/ceramics), painter (including gouache), engraver, draughtsman, architect, graphic designer. Statuettes, figurines.

Jugendstil.

Darmstadt Artists' Colony, Worpswede Artists' Colony...