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Gordon Campbell

[Badorfer ware]

Carolingian pottery associated with the German town of Badorf, situated between Bonn and Cologne. Vessels are characteristically decorated with girth grooves. The pottery was widely traded (e.g. examples excavated in 1990 at Flixborough Anglo-Saxon Settlement in Lincolnshire).

W. A. Van Es and W. J. H. Verwers: ‘Le commerce de céramiques carolingiennes aux Pays-Bas’, ...



Richard L. Wilson

Japanese centre of ceramics production. High-fired ceramic wares were manufactured from the end of the 12th century in and around the village of Inbe, Bizen Province (now Okayama Prefect.). This region had been a centre for manufacturing Sue-style stonewares and Haji-style earthenwares from the 6th century ad (see Japan, §IX, 2, (ii), (a)). At the end of the Heian period (794–1185) the potters moved from the old Sue-ware sites around Osafune village to Inbe, just to the north. In response to increased agricultural development, the new kilns manufactured kitchen mortars (suribachi), narrow-necked jars (tsubo) and wide-necked jars (kame). During the 13th century the wares show less of the grey-black surfaces typical of the old Sue tradition and more of the purple-reddish colour characteristic of Bizen. In the 14th century Bizen-ware production sites shifted from the higher slopes to the foot of the mountains. Kilns expanded in capacity, ranging up to 40 m in length. Vast quantities of Bizen wares, particularly kitchen mortars, were exported via the Inland Sea to Kyushu, Shikoku and numerous points in western Honshu, establishing Bizen as the pre-eminent ceramics centre in western Japan. By the 15th century the Bizen repertory had expanded to include agricultural wares in graded sizes; wares then featured combed decoration and such functional additions as lugs and pouring spouts. Plastic–forming was assisted by the introduction of a fusible clay found 2–4 m under paddy-fields. This clay, which fires to an almost metallic hardness, is still in use today....


Thurstan Shaw

Town in Nigeria (pop. c. 15,000 in the 1990s), situated 40 km south-east of Onitsha, which is on the River Niger. The name means ‘Great Igbo’ in the Igbo language. It is also the name given to the ancient culture that produced the elaborate metalwork and ceramics, dated to the 10th century ad, that were found at three sites on the outskirts of the town.

The first site came to light some time before the outbreak of World War II in 1939 while a man, Isaiah Anozie, was digging a cistern. Not far below ground-level he unearthed a highly decorated bronze bowl, and further digging led to the discovery of other bronzes, some of which were given to his neighbours who thought they would make good ‘medicine’. The remaining objects were bought by John Field, the area’s Assistant District Officer, who published an account of the discovery and presented the collection to the Nigerian Federal Department of Antiquities. At the invitation of the Department, the archaeologist ...


Regina Krahl


Town and county seat in north-east Jiangxi Province, China, and the country’s main centre of porcelain production. For most of its existence the town was part of Fouliang, in Raozhou Prefecture, and in historical records its ceramics are generally referred to as Raozhou ware. With a continuous history of manufacturing porcelain from the Tang period (ad 618–907), it is the source of most Chinese porcelain.

The imperial kilns were located at Zhushan in the centre of modern Jingdezhen city; many lesser kilns were situated in Hutian, 4 km to the south-east. The area is supplied with fine-quality porcelain stone, the basic raw material for Chinese porcelain; it is surrounded by forests that provided fuel for the kilns; and it is conveniently connected to the major ports of southern China by rivers. Recent excavations have brought to light several different kiln types, including egg-shaped zhenyao kilns, bread-roll-shaped mantou kilns and dragon kilns (...



Peter Hardie

[Chichow; Chi-chou; Ji’an; Chi-an]

Site in central Jiangxi Province, China, and former centre of ceramic production. Jizhou is the Sui- to Song-period (581–1279) name for modern Ji’an, a town on the Ganjiang River, which flows northwards into the Yangzi Basin. Ceramic kilns operated from at least the Tang period (ad 618–907) until the end of the Yuan (1279–1368) at the village of Yonghexu, about 8 km outside the town. The site is recorded in Wang Zuo’s 1462 edition of the Gegu yaolun (‘Essential criteria of antiquities’). Archibald Brankston visited it in 1937 and took sherds to England (London, BM), and from 1953 the local authorities have continued the investigation and excavation of the remains of some 20 kilns and other structures.

After some experimentation with whitewares and celadons in the Tang, the kilns’ range of activity was developed during the Song (960–1279), especially the Southern Song (...


H. B. Nicholson

Stylistic and iconographic tradition in Mesoamerica during the Post-Classic period (c. 900–1521).

The term was coined in 1938 by the American archaeologist George Vaillant for what he variously defined as a ‘culture’, ‘civilization’ or ‘culture complex’ that developed after the Teotihuacán collapse in the region of the modern Mexican state of Puebla and the western portion of Oaxaca, an area known as the Mixteca (from the predominant indigenous language of the region). He hypothesized that Mixteca–Puebla diffused into the Basin of Mexico during what he termed the ‘Chichimec’ period, providing ‘the source and inspiration of Aztec civilization’. He believed that aspects of the complex spread widely throughout Mesoamerica during its final major era, the Post-Classic, which he suggested should be labelled the ‘Mixteca–Puebla period’.

Although Vaillant never defined his concept with precision, he clearly had in mind a distinctive artistic style and its concomitant iconography, particularly exemplified by the members of the ‘Codex Borgia group’ of ritual and divinatory screenfolds (...



Richard L. Wilson

Centre of ceramics production in Japan. It flourished from the 5th to the 16th century. The large complex of kilns is clustered around Mt Sanage near Nagoya (Aichi Prefect.). Sanage wares are understood, through extensive archaeological research carried out from the mid-1950s, to have been the earliest glazed stonewares (kaiyūtō) to have been made in Japan. Probably due to its proximity to transportation routes and because of ample supplies of refractory clay, Sanage became established as a centre of Sue ware production in the late 5th century (see Japan §IX 2., (ii), (a)). In the mid-8th century, inspired by imported Chinese celadons, particularly Yue wares (see China, People’s Republic of §VIII 3., (iv), (b)), the Sanage potters began to move away from the Sue styles and techniques in favour of new continental models. More refractory, whiter-firing, levigated clays were employed, and the Sue style tunnel kiln (...


Chinese, 8th century, male.

Active in Chang’an during the Tang dynasty in the first half of the 8th century.

Painter, sculptor. Murals.

Yang Huizhi sculpted clay landscapes and Buddhist figures, and painted frescoes.