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German, 18th century, male.

Active still alive in 1782.

Born 1714, in Zerbst.

Miniaturist.

Brother of E. H. Abel and Ernst August Abel. After working for a time at the royal porcelain manufactory in Berlin, he gave up painting in favour of music, becoming first violinist in Schwerin. His sons Wilhelm, Christian August, and August, were his pupils....

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Gordon Campbell

Name of at least four potters in Staffordshire in the late 18th century and early 19th. The most distinguished William Adams (1746–1805) was the founder of Greengates Pottery, where the design and high quality of his jasper ware has led to the mistaken inference that he had been trained by Josiah Wedgwood; in fact he trained with John Brindley, brother of the canal builder James Brindley. His wares, of which some 300 examples are known to survive, are stamped Adams and Co. Apart from jasper ware, he also made underglaze blue-printed ware. He was succeeded by his son Benjamin, who ran the business until its closure in 1820.

The works of Adams of Greengates are sometimes confused with those of his three namesakes: William Adams (1748–1831) of Brick House, Burslem and Cobridge; William Adams of Stoke-on-Trent (1772–1829), who exported many blue-painted wares to the USA; and William Adams (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Agano  

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese region in Buzen Province (now part of Fukuoka Prefect.), northern Kyushu, where stonewares were manufactured at various sites from c. 1600 (see also Japan, §IX, 3, (i), (d)).

The first potter to make Agano ware was the Korean master Chon’gye (Jap. Sonkai; 1576–1654). Deported to Kyushu during one of the Japanese invasions of Korea in 1592 and 1597, he entered the service of Hosokawa Tadaoki (1563–1645), the newly appointed governor of Buzen. On the completion of Tadaoki’s fortress at Kokura (now Kitakyushu), Chon’gye built the Saienba kiln, probably within the castle precincts. A site thought to be Saienba was found beneath Myōkōji, the temple that replaced the castle in 1679, and excavations took place between 1979 and 1983. Sherds of both tea ceremony and everyday wares have been found there; they have transparent glazes made with a wood-ash flux, opaque glazes made with a straw-ash flux or brown-black glazes pigmented with iron oxide. Inscriptions on surviving pieces and entries in contemporary diaries indicate that these early products were also called Buzen or Kokura ware. After a few years the Saienba kiln closed, and ...

Article

Carlos Cid Priego

(b Logroño, Dec 26, 1759; d Madrid, 1842).

Spanish sculptor and ceramicist. He moved to Madrid at an early age and was apprenticed to the French sculptor Robert Michel (i), who was employed at the court. He won first prize in a competition at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes, and organized the royal workshop for the carving of precious stones, where he executed two magnificent cameo portraits of Charles IV and Queen Maria Luisa (c. 1796; Madrid, Pal. Real). He was a leading sculptor in the Buen Retiro porcelain factory, for which he produced a large amount of work. In 1797 he entered the Real Academia de Bellas Artes and was promoted until he was finally appointed Director-general in 1821. He was also appointed Honorary Chamber Sculptor to Charles IV. His successful career made him an influential figure in Spanish art. He was one of the leading exponents of Neo-classical sculpture, producing works that were technically accomplished although stylistically rather cold. He executed a large amount of work between ...

Article

French, 18th century, male.

Painter (porcelain/enamel).

Article

Luciana Arbace

Italian centre of ceramic production. The town, situated near Savona in Liguria, was a flourishing centre of maiolica production during the Renaissance. It was, however, only during the 17th and 18th centuries that a distinctive style developed. Important families in the pottery business included the Grosso, Chiodo, Corrado, Salomone, Pescio, Seitone, Seirullo, Levantino and Siccardi, all of whom produced large quantities of polychrome plates (e.g. by the Corrado, mid-17th century; Nino Ferrari priv. col., see Morazzoni, pl. 43), albarelli and vases, which were sometimes inspired by silverware and contemporary delftware. In some cases, yellow and an olive green were used on a turquoise ground. Wares were decorated in a calligraphic style with an emphasis on naturalistic motifs including such animals as leverets; this style later evolved into Baroque forms painted with soft, loose brushstrokes.

In the 1920s the Futurist potter Tullio Mazzotti (1899–1971), who took the name Tullio d’Albisola, revived Albisola’s reputation as a pottery centre. The town continued to produce pottery throughout the 20th century, especially the blue-and-white pottery known as Antico Savona. The Museo della Ceramica Manlio Trucco houses a collection of Albisola pottery from every period....

Article

Gordon Campbell

Spanish pottery manufactory. In 1727 a pottery factory was established in Alcora, in the Catalan province of Castellón (see also Valencia §3). The most important products of the factory in its early years were plaques and glazed floor titles; the plaques were typically decorated with biblical or mythological scenes set within moulded frames, and the floor tiles used religious motifs (for churches and convents) and secular subjects such as maps and theatrical scenes. Later in the century the factory began to produce tableware, notably fruit bowls, sugar bowls, and pyramidical centrepieces. At the end of the 18th century Italian models were displaced by French design, and the factory began to produce tableware of soft porcelain in the Sèvres style. In this period the factory also started to manufacture the polychrome earthenware terrines known as Fauna d’Alcora because they were the shape of animals. The factory closed in 1895...

Article

Bernadette Nelson

(d Lisbon, 1779).

Portuguese potter and painter. He became director and painting master of the Real Fábrica do Rato in Lisbon after the expulsion in 1771 of the first director Tomás Brunetto. With his predecessor, Almeida is associated with the factory’s most successful and distinctive period. Initially he collaborated with the potter and painter Severino José da Silva (d 1797) who was also vice-director and head of the potters’ workshop. Almeida planned to reform the factory, but his ideas were thwarted in 1772 when the board of directors instructed him to dismiss many employees including da Silva and the painters João and Antonio Berardi. However, in 1777 Almeida was granted a ten-year monopoly, the conditions being that he was obliged to have six well-trained artisans at hand, and he was to be given all the materials he needed, provided that he reimbursed the board of directors within the ten-year period. There was a marked change in style in the wares produced at the factory under Almeida’s direction. In particular, the large pieces enamelled with polychrome decoration were abandoned in favour of smaller and more delicately executed items of blue-and-white tableware that were influenced by wares from the Rouen faience factories (...

Article

José Meco

(fl Lisbon, c. 1720–60).

Portuguese decorative artist. His apprenticeship was probably undertaken with Master PMP, the painter of glazed tiles. His most important commission between 1729 and 1731 was for the panels of blue and white tiles, made in Lisbon, that cover the lower storey of the cloister of Oporto Cathedral, which represent scenes from the Song of Solomon. These panels are characteristic of the High Baroque phase of tile-making and show an appreciation of theatre and stage design in the deepening landscape backgrounds of the figurative panels, in the bold outlines and in the enlarged ornamental framing. The spectacular arched frames of the Oporto panels were influenced by Roman Baroque architectural ornament.

The attractive blue and white panels (c. 1735–45) in the cloister of the monastery of S Vicente de Fora, Lisbon, are attributable to Almeida. They contain landscapes, buildings, gardens, Baroque fountains, hunting scenes and other secular subjects, some after the engravings of ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Gordon Campbell

Dutch porcelain factory near Amsterdam, originally founded at Weesp (1764; see Weesp Porcelain Factory), then moved to Oude Loosdrecht (1771), Oude Amstel (1784) and Nieuwe Amstel (1799); it closed in 1810 (see Netherlands, Kingdom of the §VII 3.). The term ‘Amstel porcelain’ is sometimes used to denote the products of the period 1784–1810, when the factory was in Oude Amstel and Nieuwe Amstel, but is also used to denote all the products of the factory from 1764 to 1810. The original workmen were from Dresden, and the early pottery resembles white Dresden pottery with landscape and figure decorations; the late pottery tends to follow French models, especially Sèvres. Amstel tableware and utilitarian containers suited bourgeois tastes, and apart from a few busts in biscuit there was no attempt to mimic the refined technical mastery of Delft pottery. Decoration and shape were eclectic, so the pottery never developed a strong visual identity. Some pottery is entirely white, with ornament in low relief; piercings are sometimes outlined in blue; cartouches contained a wide variety of pictures, often portraying flowers or landscapes; Sèvres cornflowers are a common adornment....

Article

Gordon Campbell

Austrian family of porcelain painters active also in Italy. Johann Karl Wendelin Anreiter von Zirnfeld (1702–57) moved to Vienna where he worked as a Hausmaler until 1737, when he moved to the newly established Doccia Porcelain Factory as its principal painter. His son Anton (c. 1725–1801) trained under his father in Doccia, and then moved in ...

Article

Ansbach  

Walter Spiegl

German town in Bavaria, c. 40 km south-east of Nuremberg. Ansbach is known particularly as a centre of ceramics production. A faience factory was established by Matthias Baur and Johann Caspar Ripp in Ansbach c. 1708–10. Wares included jugs and tankards at first decorated in blue and later in the famille verte (green, yellow, iron-red, blue and purple) palette. In 1757 a porcelain factory was established beside the faience factory at the behest of Margrave Karl Alexander (d 1806), who in 1763 transferred it to Schloss Bruckberg. The secret formula for porcelain was brought to Ansbach by Johann Friedrich Kändler (1734–91), a nephew of the Meissen Modellmeister Johann Joachim Kändler, who had worked at the factory of Wilhelm Caspar Wegely (1714–64) in Berlin, as had the superb miniaturist and colour specialist Johann Carl Gerlach (1723–86) and the modeller Carl Gottlob Laut (...

Article

José Meco

(b Lisbon, 1688; d Lisbon, 1753).

Portuguese decorative artist. He was highly active in the second quarter of the 18th century, during the period when High Baroque glazed tiles were produced in the Lisbon factories. His output was enormous, and his work was distributed throughout Portugal and Brazil. In partnership with his son-in-law, the painter Nicolau de Freitas (c. 1703–65), he continued the tradition of António de Oliveira Bernardes (see Bernardes family, §1). Under the influence of Joanine wood-carving and silver, the decorative borders of their tiles became richer and more elegant, dominated by grimacing masks and cascading palm and acanthus foliage. The tile makers adapted the convention of using arched frames, which end in garlanded volutes often accompanied by cherubs, for their high dado panels.

Two chapels in the church of Vilar de Frades, Barcelos, dated 1736 and 1742 are decorated with scenes, signed by Antunes and Freitas, from the Life of the Virgin...

Article

Gordon Campbell

French pottery manufactory. In 1744 Jacques Lallemant, Baron d’Aprey, established a pottery on his estate at Aprey (near Dijon.). In 1760 his brother Joseph joined the factory, and the brothers engaged the Swiss pottery painter Protaix Pidoux (who had been working in the Mennecy Porcelain Factory); in the course of the next three years Pidoux produced many fine examples of elegant floral decoration for Aprey pottery. In 1769 Jacques withdrew from the partnership, and Joseph invited the potter François Ollivier to join the factory; Ollivier became the director of the factory in 1774, and managed it until his death in 1792. Under Ollivier’s directorship the factory produced its finest pottery, which was decorated with birds, flowers and landscapes by Antoine Ergot, Antoine Mège and Jacques Jarry, and sold at the factory’s shop in Paris and its outlets in Lyon and Angoulême. After the Revolution the factory continued to make pottery of a modest quality until it closed in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

French pottery manufactory in Le Castellet, near Apt (about 65 km north of Marseille) established in 1723 by César Moulin, who produced a distinctive marbled yellow-glazed pottery; the designs are modelled on English pottery (perhaps Wedgwood), and look more English than French. The success of this pottery encouraged others to open in and around Apt, which is still an important pottery centre....

Article

Gordon Campbell

French pottery manufactory. In 1737 Baron François Duval established a pottery on his estate of Lamothe; it became a Manufacture Royale in 1749. In 1774 Duval’s son Joseph de Varaire assumed responsibility for the pottery; his death in 1789, together with the advent of the Revolution, marked the end of high quality production, and thereafter only utilitarian white wares were made. The early pottery of Ardus included tableware in the style of Berain. Enamel decoration was introduced in the 1770s, when the pottery’s production included fine pharmacy jars....

Article

Arita  

Hiroko Nishida

Region in Japan, now part of Saga Prefecture, and the name of a type of porcelain first produced there during the early Edo period (1600–1868). The ware was originally known as Imari yaki (‘Imari ware’) because it was shipped from the port of Imari (Saga Prefect.). During the Meiji period (1868–1912) porcelain was produced throughout the country. The need to distinguish it from other porcelain wares led to the use of the name Arita (Arita yaki). As a result, the names Imari and Arita wares were used interchangeably. In the West, Arita porcelain was known by several names, including Imari, Amari, Old Japan and Kakiemon (see Japan, §IX, 3, (iii)).

Porcelain production is said to have begun in Japan in 1616, when the Korean ceramicist Ri Sanpei [Jap. Kanagae Sanbei] (1579–1655), who had been brought to Japan after Toyotomi Hideyoshi’s invasions of Korea (...