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Acestor  

5th century, male.

Active at the beginning of the 5th century BC.

Born to a family originally from Cnossus.

Sculptor in bronze.

Ancient Greek.

Acestor is believed to be the father of Amphion, who was sometimes - though wrongly - credited with the Delphic Charioteer...

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3rd century, male.

Active in Argos.

Sculptor.

Ancient Greek.

Acestor worked in collaboration with Toron, son of Apellion, also from Argos, on a votive statue from Troezen.

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Margaret Cool Root

Name given to a people of Persian origin, who founded an empire that flourished c. 550–331 bc.

The Achaemenid Persian empire was founded c. 550 bc by Cyrus the Great. At its greatest extent under Darius the Great (reg 522–486 bc), it stretched from the Indus into northern Greece and across Egypt. The Macedonian Alexander the Great (reg 336–323 bc) was able to defeat the Achaemenids in 331 bc only after prolonged military campaigns.

This vast Persian hegemony was rich in legacies of administrative expertise and cultural heritage. Its dynastic name was derived from an 8th-century bc ancestor who ruled as a Persian vassal of the Iranian kingdom of the Medes, who were to inherit great power by conquering the Assyrians in the late 7th century bc. Both the Median overlords and Persian vassals enjoyed access to the Mesopotamian/Iranian artistic heritage. Annals of the Assyrian kings describe the Medes and the Persians living in fortified cities as early as the ...

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Article

5th century, male.

Active between 460 and 430 BC.

Painter.

Ancient Greek.

The Achilles Painter is named for his depictions of Achilles, particularly that on an amphora in the Vatican where the hero is shown armed with a lance and wearing a cuirass. He is depicted standing alone, while on the other side of the amphora is a female figure. This way of presenting single figures, one on either side of a vase, can be compared to the work of the Berlin Painter and initially had a very strong influence on the Achilles Painter. The rather exaggerated anatomical details of the early nudes is borrowed from the Berlin Painter....

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Article

Marco Rendeli

[It.: ‘red water’]

Modern name of an Etruscan settlement near Viterbo, Italy. It is situated on a small tufa plateau bounded on three sides by streams, one of which runs red. Excavations conducted by the Swedish Institute of Classical Studies during the 1960s and 1970s uncovered the tufa foundations of buildings that comprised various sectors of an ancient town. These provide some of the most extensive archaeological evidence relating to Etruscan domestic architecture and urban organization. The site was already inhabited in the 8th century bc and grew considerably during the following two centuries. Its main economic activity was apparently agriculture. Throughout its history the settlement had close links both with the coastal Etruscan cities and with those inland, in particular Tarquinia and Volsinii Veteres (Orvieto). It was permanently abandoned at the beginning of the 5th century bc, and the absence of any overlay of Roman or later material contributes to its archaeological importance....

Article

5th century, male.

Active in the second half of the 5th century BC.

Born to a family originally from Selinus (Selinunte), Sicily.

Sculptor.

Ancient Greek.

Acron's name appears at Delphi on a base for two statues ( Asclepius and Hygieia?) offered by Philistion, a devotee of Asclepius. The inscription dates from before 400 BC....

Article

David S. Brose

Prehistoric site in North America. It is the largest of several mounds along the Scioto River north of Chillicothe, OH. Although it is the eponym of the Early Woodland-period Adena culture of the Upper Ohio River Valley (c. 1000–c. 100 bc), the date of the mound itself is unknown. No stylized engraved palettes, characteristic of Adena culture, were found. The mound comprises a penannular earthwork built in several stages to a height of 8 m. A circular structure with sloping sides and double-set wooden post walls was constructed on a floor from which numerous fires had been cleared. Next, burials were placed centrally in rectangular tombs dug into the floor of the structure, a low mound was heaped over them and the funerary structure was burned. The entire area was then covered by layers of black sand incorporating several new cremations and burials outside the central tombs. For some considerable time after this, additional cremated human remains and extended burials were placed in further layers of sand and gravel. The cremation and inhumation burials, and occasionally clay-covered bundles of bones, were accompanied by annular and penannular copper bracelets and rings; cut river mussel shell animal effigies; cut mica headbands; expanded centre gorgets, ground, polished and drilled, of schist and chlorite; and a human effigy carved in the round on an Ohio pipestone tube....

Article

Aesopus  

6th century, male.

Active in Attica in the first quarter of the 6th century BC.

Sculptor.

Ancient Greek.

Aesopus' name, together with a reference to his brothers, was found in Attic characters on a base from Sigea in the Troad (the area around Troy).

Article

Aetion  

4th century, male.

Painter. Historical subjects, peopled scenes, genre scenes.

Ancient Greek.

Probably Ionian, Aetion was active in the second half of the 4th century BC. Lucian describes one of his paintings representing the Marriage of Alexander and Roxane, princess of Sogdiana. The Aldobrandini frescoes may relate to this work. Lucian's text inspired Sodoma (or Raphael ?) to paint the same subject. According to Pliny, who indicates that the artist also worked in bronze, Aetion also painted an ...

Article

Aetion  

C. Hobey-Hamsher

(fl late 4th century bc).

Greek painter. Pliny (Natural History, XXXV.78) placed Aetion in the 107th Olympiad (352–349 bc) and (XXXV.50) included him in a list of painters who used a palette restricted to four colours: white, yellow, red and black. Cicero (Brutus xviii.70), however, listed him among those painters who used a wider palette. It is likely that the four-colour palette was a restriction adopted occasionally by many artists who, in other works, used more than four colours. None of Aetion’s work survives, but Pliny ascribed to him pictures of Dionysos, Tragedy and Comedy, Semiramis Rising from Slavery to Royal Power and an Old Woman Carrying Lamps and Attending a Bride, whose modesty was apparent. His most famous painting depicted the Wedding of Alexander the Great and Roxane, and it was perhaps painted to celebrate it (327 bc). It was described by Lucian of Samosata (Aetion iv–vi), who saw it in Italy. Lucian added that when the painting was shown at Olympia, Proxenides, one of the chief judges of the games, was so impressed by it that he gave his daughter to Aetion in marriage. Alexander the Great stood best man. The painting included erotes playing with Alexander’s armour, a motif repeated in several Roman wall paintings with reference to Mars and Hercules. Another Aetion, also assigned to the 107th Olympiad, appears in a list of bronze sculptors drawn up by Pliny (XXXIV.50); this is probably an interpolation from XXXV.78....

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Article

5th century, male.

Active in Athens in the second half of the 5th century BC.

Sculptor.

Ancient Greek, Classical Period.

Living at Alopeke (near Athens), Agathanor was a foreigner recorded as having received payment for work on the friezes of the Erechtheum in 408-407 BC....

Article

C. Hobey-Hamsher

(fl late 5th century bc).

Greek painter. He was the son of Eudemos and came originally from Samos, but worked in Athens; none of his work survives. He was said to be self-taught. Vitruvius (On Architecture VII.praef.11) claimed that Agatharchos was the first artist to paint a stage set on wooden panels. This was for a tragedy by Aeschylus (525/4–456 bc), although it may have been a revival presented later in the 5th century bc. Vitruvius added that he wrote a commentary discussing the theoretical basis of his painted scenery and that the philosophers Demokritos (late 5th century bc) and Anaxagoras (c. 500–428 bc) followed him in exploring theories of perspective. It is unlikely that Agatharchos organized his compositions around a single vanishing point. More probably, individual objects and buildings or groups of buildings were depicted receding towards separate vanishing points. If Agatharchos’ experiments in perspective were confined to stage scenery, they would have been limited to architectural backgrounds, before which the actor moved. Aristotle (...

Article

4th century, male.

Sculptor.

Ancient Greek.

Agatharchus is known from a signature from Thasos (dedication to Pan and Aphrodite).

Article

5th century, male.

Painter. Historical subjects.

Ancient Greek, Classical Period.

Agatharchus was a Samian painter working in Athens in the second half of the 5th century BC, at the time of Pericles. He is thought to have painted a skene (backdrop) for Aeschylus' play Seven against Thebes...

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4th century, male.

Wrongly described as a sculptor.

Ancient Greek.

Agathinus is known from a signature on the marble tree trunk supporting a now-lost statue from Privernum.

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Agathon  

5th century, male.

Vase painter.

Ancient Greek.

The pyxis (small pot) signed by Agathon shows a scene of offering that, from the names of the figures, must be taking place on Olympus. The style is still 'severe', though it is freer than that on the Megacles pyxis. Stylistically, it can be dated to around 450 BC....

Article

3rd century, male.

Sculptor.

Ancient Greek.

A scene bearing Agathon's signature and showing the priest Aristis worshipping Horus, dating from around 250 BC, was found between the temples of Apollo and Isis at Cyrene.