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Article

[ho Kunhae ; Koun ; Ch’oja ; Haengch’on ]

(b 1297; d 1364).

Korean calligrapher. He is considered one of the last great calligraphers of the Koryŏ period (918–1392). Born into a noble family, at the age of 17 he passed his first examinations and entered the Confucian academy in Kaesŏng, where he eventually rose to prominence in the central administration. Information on his life, and in particular on his career as an official, can be found in the Koryŏsa, the history of the Koryŏ dynasty.

Yi was directly influenced by the calligraphic works of Zhao Mengfu, who at that time was considered among the greatest painters and calligraphers of Yuan-period (1279–1368) China, with which Korea had close political and cultural contacts. However, only one of Yi’s calligraphic works survives, and that only as a rubbing (Seoul, priv. col.) from a stele inscription. This is the celebrated Munsu ṣa changgyŏng pi (‘Inscription for the sūtra repository of Munsu Temple’; see Kim, Choi and Im, pl. 118), a piece written to commemorate the building of a new library for sacred texts (Skt ...

Article

Alan Powers

(Irving Jeffrey)

(b Haiphong, French Indo-China [now Vietnam], Oct 16, 1900; d Rodmersham, Kent, Nov 8, 1979).

English illustrator and author. From 1905 he grew up in England, becoming a professional artist in 1926 after part-time study at the Westminster School of Art, London. He became known as an illustrator of genre scenes in a variety of media, often with a comic Victorian flavour. He was best known for illustrated stories, the first of which, Little Tim and the Brave Sea-captain (Oxford, 1936), was followed by numerous imaginative and popular children’s books and by many other illustrated books. Baggage to the Enemy (London, 1941) reflected his appointment in 1940 as an Official War Artist, recording the German invasion of France, and the North African and Italian campaigns. His freelance career continued after the war with a steady production of illustrative and ephemeral work in an instantly recognizable style that relied on ink line and delicate washes.

The Young Ardizzone: An Autobiographical Fragment (London, 1970) Diary of a War Artist...

Article

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1882, in Yokohama; died 1974.

Painter, illustrator.

Groups: Issuikai, Nitten.

Ikuma Arishima studied under Fujishima Takeji, a painter with leanings towards Western art. He was a member of the Issui-kai and the Nitten and subsequently founded the Nika-kai . In 1923...

Article

Mark H. Sandler

[Shijun]

(b Kyoto, March 3, 1844; d Kyoto, February 20, 1895).

Japanese painter, book illustrator and art educator. Born the fourth son of Yasuda Shirobei, a Kyoto moneylender, the young Bairei was adopted into the Kōno family. In 1852 he began his artistic training under the Maruyama-school painter, Nakajima Raishō (1796–1871). After Raishō’s death, Bairei studied with the Shijō-school master Shiokawa Bunrin (1808–77). He also studied Chinese literature and calligraphy with Confucian scholars. In 1873 his talent was officially recognized when he was included among the painters selected to show at the second Kyoto Exhibition.

In 1878 he and the painter Mochizuki Gyokusen (1834–1913) successfully petitioned the governor of Kyoto Prefecture to establish the Kyoto Prefectural Painting School (Kyōto Fu Gagakkō) in 1880. Bairei was appointed instructor in the Kanō and Tōyō Sesshū styles of ink painting (suibokuga; see Japan §VI 4., (iii)), but in 1881 he resigned his post to open a private art academy. Among his students were ...

Article

Tadashi Kobayashi

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1779; d Edo, 1858).

Japanese calligrapher. Together with Maki Ryōko and Nukina Kaioku, he was one of the Bakumatsu no Sanpitsu (‘Three Brushes of the late Edo period’). His powerful brushwork, known as the Beian ryū (Beian school or style), continued to be much admired into the Meiji period (1868–1912). He was the son of Ichikawa Kansai (1749–1820), a poet skilled in calligraphy and the head of the Shōheikō, the official Confucian academy in Edo. From his youth Beian concentrated on calligraphy, studying the works of such famous calligraphers as Yan Zhenqing (ad 709–85), Dong Qichang of the Ming period (1368–1644) and Mi Fu (see Mi family, §1) of the Song period (960–1279), and collecting such of their autographs as he could. He modelled himself in particular after Mi Fu, from whom it is said that he took his artist’s name, Beian. In ...

Article

Beisen  

Japanese, 19th century, male.

Born 1852; died 1906.

Painter.

Beisen was a pupil of Suzuki Hyakumen. Known mainly as an illustrator, he painted figures and landscapes.

Article

Xu Bing  

Melissa Chiu

(b Chongqing, 1955).

Chinese installation artist . Xu Bing spent much of his childhood in Beijing where his parents were professors at Beijing University. He said that being surrounded by books during this formative period in his life gave him an intense interest in them. Xu studied printmaking at the Central Academy of Fine Arts in Beijing (1987). One of Xu’s most memorable early works is Tian Shu ( A Book from the Sky , 1987–91), which was created during the 1985 New Wave Movement in China—a period of new-found freedom for artistic experimentation. Tian Shu consisted of reams of paper printed with Chinese characters, each one in some way incorrect, so that the cumulative effect is a library of nonsensical words. The labour needed to create this art work was substantial, taking the artist nearly four years to complete carving the individual characters into woodblocks. The reams of printed paper were exhibited in three different ways: as traditional hand-bound books, suspended large scrolls, and wall posters. ...

Article

Elizabeth F. Bennett

revised by Lei Xue

[I Ping-shou; zi Zisi; hao Moqing]

(b Ninghua, Fujian Province, 1754; d Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province, 1815).

Chinese calligrapher, minor painter, and seal-carver. He passed the civil service examination to become a jinshi in 1789. He then had a series of official posts, serving on the Board of Justice, as an examiner, and as a prefectural magistrate first at Huizhou in Guangdong Province and then at Yangzhou in Jiangsu Province. Yi is generally recognized as a pioneering figure in the stele studies (beixue) movement in calligraphy (see China, §IV 2., (vii)). He occasionally painted landscapes, few of which are extant. His writings on calligraphy can be found in his Collected Poems of the Lingering Spring Thatched Hall (Liuchun caotang shichao).

Yi shared contemporary antiquarian interest and owned a large collection of rubbings from ancient inscriptions. In calligraphy Yi is best known for his clerical script (lishu), a modern reinterpretation of the style of Han dynasty stone steles. He also developed distinctive style in running script (...

Article

Masatomo Kawai

[Gyokukei]

(1348–c. 1420).

Japanese Zen monk, scholar, calligrapher, poet and painter. He began his training as a monk at Nanzenji in Kyoto, under Shun’oku Myōha, the nephew and disciple of Musō Sōseki, one of the leading Zen prelates of the Muromachi period (1333–1568). His other teachers included the Zen recluse Shakushitsu Genkō and Gidō Shūshin, under whom he studied literature. A trusted adviser of the fourth Ashikaga shogun, Yoshimochi, Gyokuen was appointed to the prestigious abbacies of Kenninji (c. 1409) and Nanzenji (1413) in Kyoto. His true wish, however, was to retire from the world, and in 1420, after a disagreement with Yoshimochi, he left Kyoto to lead a life of seclusion. An accomplished poet, Gyokuen also brushed colophons on many shigajiku (poem-painting scrolls) of the period, including Josetsu’s Catching a Catfish with a Gourd (c. 1413–15; Kyoto, Myōshinji). His own painting, which shows the influence of the mid-14th-century Chinese priest–painter Xue Chuang and of Tesshū Tokusai, strongly reflects his literary disposition. He is especially well known for his subdued monochrome ink paintings of orchids (emblems of moral virtue), 30 of which have survived (...

Article

Stephen Addiss

[Kameda Chōkō; Kameda Hōsai]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1752; d Edo, 1826).

Japanese painter, poet, calligrapher and book illustrator. The son of an Edo merchant, he studied calligraphy from a very early age under the noted Chinese-style calligrapher Mitsui Shinna (1700–82). He also received a Confucian education, unusual at that time for a merchant’s son. From about 1765 to 1774 Bōsai trained under Inoue Kinga (1732–84), an influential Confucian scholar of eclectic doctrines as well as a painter and calligrapher, at the Seijūkan, a private academy near Yokohama. Bōsai opened a Confucian academy in Edo in 1774. In 1790, however, the Tokugawa shogunate issued an edict aimed at curtailing the popularity of such schools as Bōsai’s, where students were encouraged to develop their own moral philosophy rather than accept the government-sponsored Confucianism of the Chinese Song-period (ad 960–1279) philosopher Zhu Xi. Bōsai gradually lost his pupils and in 1797 closed his school.

Bōsai’s artistic activity increased from ...