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Article

Suzanne Tise

Descriptive term applied to a style of decorative arts that was widely disseminated in Europe and the USA during the 1920s and 1930s. Derived from the style made popular by the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris in 1925, the term has been used only since the late 1960s, when there was a revival of interest in the decorative arts of the early 20th century. Since then the term ‘Art Deco’ has been applied to a wide variety of works produced during the inter-war years, and even to those of the German Bauhaus. But Art Deco was essentially of French origin, and the term should, therefore, be applied only to French works and those from countries directly influenced by France....

Article

Michèle Lavallée

Decorative style of the late 19th century and the early 20th that flourished principally in Europe and the USA. Although it influenced painting and sculpture, its chief manifestations were in architecture and the decorative and graphic arts, the aspects on which this survey concentrates. It is characterized by sinuous, asymmetrical lines based on organic forms; in a broader sense it encompasses the geometrical and more abstract patterns and rhythms that were evolved as part of the general reaction to 19th-century historicism. There are wide variations in the style according to where it appeared and the materials that were employed....

Article

Alan Crawford

Informal movement in architecture and the decorative arts that championed the unity of the arts, the experience of the individual craftsman, and the qualities of materials and construction in the work itself.

The Arts and Crafts Movement developed in the second half of the 19th century and lasted well into the 20th, drawing its support from progressive artists, architects and designers, philanthropists, amateurs, and middle-class women seeking work in the home. They set up small workshops apart from the world of industry, revived old techniques, and revered the humble household objects of pre-industrial times. The movement was strongest in the industrializing countries of northern Europe and in the USA, and it can best be understood as an unfocused reaction against industrialization. Although quixotic in its anti-industrialism, it was not unique; indeed it was only one among several late 19th-century reform movements, such as the Garden City movement, vegetarianism, and folksong revivals, that set the Romantic values of nature and folk culture against the artificiality of modern life....

Article

Alan Crawford

English designer, writer, architect and social reformer . He was educated at King’s College, Cambridge. As a young man he was deeply influenced by the teachings of John Ruskin and William Morris, and particularly by their vision of creative workmanship in the Middle Ages; such a vision made work in modern times seem like mechanical drudgery. Ashbee played many parts and might be thought a dilettante; but his purpose was always to give a practical expression to what he had learnt from Ruskin and Morris. An intense and rather isolated figure, he found security in a life dedicated to making the world a better place....

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 23 April 1889, in Paris.

Goldsmith. Jewels.

Bablet made jewellery and objects in precious metals. He exhibited at the Salon d'Automne, of which he was a member, between 1913 and 1933, and at the Salon des Artistes-Décorateurs, to which he also belonged, ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 1877, in Munich; died, died during World War I (1914-1918).

Worker in precious metals, metal worker, engraver. Jewellery.

Jugendstil.

Karl Johann Bauer learned metalwork, then worked in Munich for Rothmüller, Lohr & Steinicken. He also took lessons at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Munich. He taught metalwork at the Debschitz Schule, a school of applied art in Munich founded by Wilhelm Debschitz and Hermann Obrist in ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 14 April 1868, in Hamburg; died 27 February 1940, in Berlin.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver, architect, designer, decorative artist, graphic designer. Posters, furniture, wallpaper, carpets, glassware, ceramics, table services, jewellery, silverwork, objets d'art, typefaces.

Jugendstil, functional school.

Die Sieben (Group of Seven), Deutscher Werkbund...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 1873, in Breslau (now Wroclaw, Poland).

Worker in precious metals. Designs (jewellery).

Jugendstil.

Arthur Berger was the son of a precious metal worker. After his training he worked in the studio of a jewellery-maker in Dresden. He taught at the Lehr und Versuchswerkstätte in Stuttgart. He worked after designs by Johann Vincenz von Cissarz, Kleinhempel and Karl Gross, among others....

Article

Biggin  

Gordon Campbell

In clothing, a child’s cap or a night-cap; in metalwork, a coffee-pot (originally silver but later in other metals) containing a strainer for the infusion of the coffee.

Article

Graham Reynolds

Swedish miniature painter, active in England. He was first apprenticed to a goldsmith and jeweller in Stockholm. He became adept at miniature painting in enamel, a method that had been introduced into Sweden by Pierre Signac (d 1684), and he is said to have studied the enamels of Jean Petitot I and Jacques Bordier (...