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Danielle B. Joyner

From the time John Cassian established the first female foundation in Marseille in ad 410, monastic women lived in varying states of enclosure and were surrounded by diverse images and objects that contributed to their devotion, education and livelihood. The first rule for women, written in 512 by St Caesarius of Arles, emphasized their strict separation from men and the world, as did the Periculoso, a directive issued by Pope Boniface VIII (reg 1294–1303) in 1298. Various architectural solutions developed throughout the Middle Ages to reconcile the necessities of enclosure with the access required by male clerics to celebrate Mass and provide pastoral care. Nuns’ choirs, where the women would gather for their daily prayers, were often constructed as discreet spaces in the church, which allowed women to hear or see the Mass without interacting with the cleric, as in the 10th-century choir in the eastern transept gallery at St Cyriakus in Gernrode, Germany. In some Cistercian examples, the nuns’ choir appeared at the west end of the nave. Dominican and Franciscan architecture was largely varied. Double monasteries, which housed men and women, also required careful construction. A 7th-century text describing the church of St Brigida in ...


Joost Vander Auwera

(b Mechelen, 1544 [acc. to his epitaph] or 1549 [acc. to van Mander]; d Antwerp, Oct 1, 1638).

Flemish painter, draughtsman, tapestry designer and art dealer. He was the son of Daniel Snellinck (fl 1531–44), a painter and pedlar, and Cornelia Verhulst, who was related to the Bruegel family. He probably trained with his father in Mechelen, where watercolour painting (waterverfschilderen) was a speciality. They both worked for Peter Ernst, Graf von Mansfeld, and painted battle scenes, the genre for which Jan was particularly praised by van Mander, although no examples have survived. On 10 July 1574 Jan married Helena de Jode, daughter of Gerard de Jode (i), the Antwerp engraver and print publisher; his pupils are mentioned in the Antwerp guild’s records from 1577–8, but he became a citizen of Antwerp only on 27 June 1596. However, he is known to have been living there in 1584–5, at which time he was a Calvinist (though he later completely abandoned his Reformist tendencies).

Snellinck’s earliest known works are the drawings for prints in the ...


Teresa del Conde

(b Juchitán, Oaxaca, July 17, 1940).

Mexican painter, sculptor, textile designer, printmaker and collector. He grew up in an area that was rich in legends, rites and beliefs springing from a strong rural tradition predating the Spanish conquest of Mexico. He began to draw and paint at a very early age, studying first in Oaxaca, where he produced linocuts in the graphic workshop run by Arturo García Bustos (b 1926). In 1957 he moved to Mexico City to attend the Escuela de Diseño y Artesanía of the Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes. After holding his first one-man shows of gouaches and prints in 1959 in Fort Worth, TX, and Mexico City, he moved in 1960 to Paris, where until 1963 he studied printmaking under Stanley William Hayter. While continuing to work within western traditions, he became interested in the art of oriental cultures and in ancient Mexican art, especially in those forms that were not officially sanctioned. In his attitude towards the sustaining inspiration of traditions he was particularly close to Paul Klee....