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Article

Peyton Skipwith

(b London, April 14, 1863; d London, Nov 27, 1933).

English decorative artist and painter. He was articled to an architect and studied at Westminster School of Art under Frederick Brown and at the Royal Academy Schools. Later he worked in the studio of Aimé Morot in Paris and travelled to Italy. Bell belonged to the group of artist–craftsmen who brought about the last flowering of the Pre-Raphaelite movement. He painted in oil and watercolour and was among the pioneers of the revival of the use of tempera. He was an illustrator and also worked in stained glass and mosaic. He is best known for a series of bas-reliefs in coloured plaster, a group of which was used in the interior decoration at Le Bois de Moutiers, a house in Varengeville, Normandy, designed by Edwin Lutyens in 1898. Bell’s understanding of early Italian art underpinned his work in mosaic, a medium he used to great effect in three public commissions in London: the ...

Article

Christopher Newall

(b Bloomsbury, London, Sept 24, 1826; d Chelsea, London, Feb 9, 1897).

English painter. He was the son of a prosperous wine merchant and pawnbroker. His childhood was spent in London, and in 1846 he was apprenticed to the firm of architects Wyatt & Brandon, where he remained for three years. He was always fascinated by ancient buildings but gradually lost interest in architecture as a career. In 1849, perhaps as a result of meeting David Cox at Betws-y-Coed (Gwynedd, Wales), he decided to become a painter. In the early 1850s Boyce drew landscape and architectural subjects with a fluent watercolour technique derived from Cox. In 1854 Boyce made an extended journey to Italy; he painted views of buildings in Venice and Verona, which were commended by Ruskin, and semi-abstract twilight studies, which anticipate Whistler’s nocturnes.

Towards the end of the 1850s Boyce adopted a technique of minute detail and bright colour; various watercolours of this period, such as the Mill on the Thames at Mapledurham...

Article

British, 19th century, female.

Born 1823; died 1897.

Painter. Figures, portraits.

Symbolism.

Alice Boyd was living at Penkill Castle in Ayrshire when she met the Pre-Raphaelite painter William Bell Scott in 1859. She became his pupil and mistress. This attachment continued until the death of Bell Scott. They were close to Dante Gabriel Rossetti....

Article

David Cordingly

(b Bletchingley, Surrey, Dec 8, 1831; d London, Jan 7, 1902).

English painter. His father was an army veterinary surgeon attached to the 12th Lancers; for the first 15 years of Brett’s life, his family followed the regiment, and when his father was permanently stationed at Maidstone they settled in the nearby village of Detling. During these early years Brett showed an equal enthusiasm for astronomy and painting, but in 1851 he received some drawing lessons from J. D. Harding and noted in his diary, ‘From this circumstance I may date the commencement of my real education in art’.

Harding introduced Brett to Richard Redgrave, who set him to draw casts in the British Museum, and in 1853 he became a student in the Royal Academy Schools. However, it is clear from Brett’s diary that John Ruskin and the Pre-Raphaelites had a more profound effect on his art than did the instruction in the Schools. He read Ruskin’s pamphlet on Pre-Raphaelitism in ...

Article

British, 19th century, male.

Born 1830, in Bletchingley; died 1902, in Putney.

Painter, watercolourist. Animals, seascapes, landscapes, portraits.

John Edward Brett was a follower of the Pre-Raphaelite School. His work before 1870 showed its influence. In 1858, he visited the region of Val d'Aosta and settled at the castle of St Peter in Villeneuve. Here he received a visit from Ruskin, of whom he was a great admirer. During his stay in the Val d'Aosta, he painted a great number of landscapes, notably of the Dora Baltac Valley....

Article

British, 19th century, female.

Born 1829, in Ireland; died 1882.

Painter. Portraits, landscapes.

Pre-Raphaelite.

Rosa Brett grew up in Dublin before moving with her family to Kent where she remained for the rest of her life. She painted landscapes in the area with her brother John Brett, a celebrated Pre-Raphaelite painter. She exhibited at the Royal Academy in London ...

Article

British, 19th – 20th century, female.

Born 11 November 1850; died 1927.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtswoman (mixed media).

Symbolism.

Pre-Raphaelite.

Catherine Madox Brown studied painting with her father, Ford Madox Brown, as did her sister Lucy and her brother Oliver, and she very soon began exhibiting her work at the Royal Academy, the Dudley Gallery and at other venues in London in ...

Article

British, 19th century, male.

Born 16 April 1821, in Calais, France, to British parents; died October 1893, in London.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman. Religious subjects, portraits.

Symbolism.

Pre-Raphaelite (forerunner).

Ford Madox Brown's father, a senior officer on half pay in the British navy, settled on the continent. The boy showed a talent for drawing from his early youth. He was to work in many European towns including Bruges, Ghent and particularly Antwerp where he became the pupil of Baron Wappers, who had studied with David. The early years of Brown's career were interrupted by the deaths of first his mother, then one of his sisters. This was followed by his father falling ill and needing much care from his son. The state of health of Brown's new young wife was subsequently to cause him further anxiety. They left Paris, where Brown had been living for four years, for the warmer climate of Italy but less than a year later, in 1845, his wife, who felt lost and unhappy in Italy, wished to return to Calais. She died in the carriage as it crossed Paris....

Article

Mary Bennett

(b Calais, April 16, 1821; d London, Oct 6, 1893).

English painter and designer.

The son of a retired ship’s purser who had settled at Calais, Brown received an academic training under Albert Gregorius (1774–1853) at Bruges, under Pieter van Hanselaere (1786–1862) at Ghent and under Baron Gustaf Wappers at the Academie in Antwerp (1837–9). He moved to Paris in 1840, married the following year and studied independently of the ateliers, concentrating on works by Rembrandt and the Spanish masters in the Orléans Collection, then in the Louvre.

Among contemporary French painters Brown particularly admired Eugène Delacroix and Paul Delaroche. He experimented with an eclectic style marked by strong chiaroscuro and dark tones created with bitumen. His primary concern for dramatic gesture and facial expressiveness characterized all later changes of style and received most criticism. His subjects included romantic themes from English history, for example Mary Queen of Scots (exh. Salon 1842; untraced, sketch in U. Manchester, Whitworth A.G.), and several from Byron including ...

Article

British, 19th century, female.

Born 1943, in Paris, France; died 1894, in San Remo, Italy.

Painter. Genre scenes.

Symbolism.

Pre-Raphaelite.

Lucy Madox Brown was the daughter of Ford Madox Brown and sister of Catherine and Oliver. She exhibited work between 1869 and 1872 in London, showing one of her works at the Royal Academy. In ...