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British, 20th century, male.

Born 14 August 1888, in London; died 14 February 1929, in London.

Painter, medallist, illustrator. Portraits, landscapes.

London Group.

Sydney Carline was the son of George Carline and brother of Richard and Hilda Carline. He studied from 1907 to 1910 at the Slade School of Art in London and then in Paris. During World War I he served the Royal Flying Corps with his brother Richard and was posted to Italy, the Western Front and in the Middle East. He was appointed official war artist with the R.A.F. in ...


Armenian, 20th century, male.

Active in France from 1971.

Born 1940, in Yerevan.

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman.

David Erevantzi was an apprentice goldsmith, silversmith and ceramist in his native town. In his student years he tried to renew the ancient goldsmith’s art, traditional in Armenia, at the same time as he was practising ceramics, painting and drawing. His work as a sculptor consisted of monumental stone sculptures, ceramic compositions for decorative purposes, small reliefs and medals. He drew his inspiration from nature, the history of his native country and the art of the early Middle Ages in Romania, arriving at a kind of dreamlike figurativism. He participated successfully in pan-Soviet and East Bloc exhibitions after ...


Susan T. Goodman

[Moscovitz, Shalom; Shalom of Safed]

(b Safed, Palestine [now Israel], 1887; d Safed, Jan 1980).

Israeli painter. For over 70 years he worked as a watchmaker as well as a scribe, silversmith and stonemason in Safed, an important centre of Jewish mysticism. After his watch-repair shop was destroyed in the War of Independence (1948), he earned a living by selling plywood toys coloured with crayon. In the mid-1950s Yosl Bergner, who recognized in these charming works the essential qualities of folk art, encouraged Shalom to paint. Shalom’s artistic vocabulary grew out of the rich traditions of his Hasidic heritage. The mystical literature of Safed and the deep impression made by the landscape of Israel contributed to his spiritual and visual development, while his work also reveals a deep affinity and commitment to the Scriptures, although he did much more than merely illustrate the scriptural narrative, as in Scenes from the Book of Ruth (1960; New York, Jew. Mus.). He created a pictorial unity from various recognized conventions, including discrepancies in scale between figures and settings in the depiction of groups in complex compositions, which heighten the expressive effect. Figures are depicted in profile or silhouetted in flat, unmodelled form (e.g. ...


N. Yezerskaya


(b Tiflis [now Tbilisi], Jan 21, 1871; d Tbilisi, June 17, 1953).

Georgian painter. He studied at the trade school in Tiflis and began working as a master metalworker and blacksmith. His drawing ability was such that he was encouraged to study at the Academy of Arts, St Petersburg. He studied in the studio of Il’ya Repin, whose ideas on Critical Realism in painting had an influence on his work. Toidze’s interest in national culture was already perceptible in his diploma work Festival in Mtskheta (1900–01; Tbilisi, Mus. A. Georgia). It is a vivid and colourful portrayal of local types enjoying a traditional festive meal.

Toidze was attracted to images of working people and local types before and after the Revolution of 1917. His painting Revolution (1918; untraced, sketch in Tbilisi, Mus. A. Georgia) is a dramatic portrayal of social upheaval, but in the 1920s he became concerned with depicting the new public and social conditions. The Smiths (early 1920s; Tbilisi, Mus. A. Georgia), in which the twilight interior of the forge is illuminated by a mysterious light pouring from the fire, emphasizes the beauty and energy of the movements and the tense rhythms of the labour of the blacksmiths. During and after World War II, Toidze portrayed the patriotic feelings of the people in such paintings as the ...