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Carlos Cid Priego

(b Mataró, April 12, 1771; d Barcelona, July 7, 1855).

Spanish sculptor and teacher. He began studying at the Escuela de Bellas Artes de la Lonja in Barcelona at the age of 14, and he worked in the studio of Salvador Gurri (fl 1756–1819), a late Baroque sculptor with Neo-classical tendencies. Campeny left the studio after he was attacked by Gurri, who, as a teacher at the Escuela (1785), continued to persecute him and threw him out. Campeny then worked in Lérida, Cervera and Montserrat. He produced his first major work, St Bruno (1795; destr. 1831), in carved polychromed wood. He also trained with Nicolás Traver and José Cabañeras, both late Baroque artists. Stylistically, Campeny began with a moderate and personal naturalism, later assimilating some of the Baroque influences from his Catalan teachers. Readmitted to the Escuela, in 1795 he won a scholarship to complete his studies in Rome, where he went in 1796...


Matthias Frehner

(b Buochs, Feb 22, 1767; d Thorberg, March 30, 1838).

Swiss sculptor. He was trained by his father, Jakob Lorenz Christen, a wood-carver and painter of votive pictures, and by the painter Johann Melchior Wyrsch in Lucerne, and the wood-carver Friedrich Schäfer (1709–86). He began an apprenticeship as a sculptor in Rome (1788), studying with Alexander Trippel. In 1790 he returned to Switzerland, where he initially settled in Zurich. In 1792, together with a number of students, he founded an art school in Stans. In 1794 he moved to Lucerne. He also worked in Basle (1799), Berne (1801) and Aarau (1803), where he fulfilled a number of portrait commissions, including a bust of Heinrich Pestalozzi (bronze, undated, terracotta version, 1809; both Aarau, Aargau. Ksthaus). In 1805 in Milan he produced a massive bust of Napoleon Bonaparte. Further commissions in Aarau included a bust of General César de la Harpe (Aarau, Aargau. Ksthaus). Christen produced several portrait busts for ...


(b Mechelen, Sept 18, 1756; d Antwerp, Jan 24, 1830).

Flemish sculptor. His work was essentially part of the late Flemish Baroque tradition; yet he was aware of the emerging Neo-classical movement, as is revealed by certain details in his religious works and, above all, by the spirit of his secular commissions. He was a pupil first of the painter Guillaume Herryns and then of the sculptor Pierre Valckx. In 1784 van Geel was appointed an assistant teacher at the academy of art in Mechelen and subsequently devoted himself consistently to teaching, first in Mechelen and then at the Académie in Antwerp. Among his pupils were Jean-Baptiste de Bay (1802–62), Guillaume Geefs, Lodewijk Royer, Joseph Tuerlinckx (1809–73) and his own son Jan Lodewijk van Geel (b Mechelen, 28 Sept 1787; d Brussels, 10 April 1852), also a sculptor. Jan Frans’s first important commission was for statues (1780–90) of St James, St Andrew...


Cynthia Lawrence

(b Mechelen, March 18, 1661; dMechelen, c. 1720).

Flemish sculptor and architect. He was a pupil of Lucas Faydherbe, from whom he learnt the picturesque realism associated with Rubens’s workshop. He collaborated with the Mechelen sculptor Jan van der Steen in London before returning to Flanders and joining the Mechelen guild. Langhemans is best represented in Belgium by the works he executed for the church of St Rombout in Mechelen. The earliest is a naturalistic stone statue of St Libertus (1680) for the monument to Amati de Coriache; a dramatically gesticulating stone figure of St Mary Magdalene from the monument to Jan Baptiste and Bernard Alexander van der Zype (1701) exhibits similar tendencies. Conversely, the oak statue of the Virgin of Victory (1680), carved for the monastery of the Brothers of Charity at Kappelen, Antwerp, has a classicizing appearance, which became more pronounced in his work by c. 1700. In 1698–9 Langhemans collaborated with ...


Ivo Kořán


Bohemian family of sculptors. (Ignác) František [(Ignaz) Franz] Platzer (b Plzeň, 6 July 1717; d Prague, 24 Sept 1787) was apprenticed first to his father Jan Benedikt Platzer (1678–c. 1730), a minor wood-carver, and later possibly to Lazar Widman. At the age of 24 he began studies at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Vienna, probably with Georg Raphael Donner’s pupil Johann Nikolaus Moll (1709–43), with whom he collaborated from 1742. In 1744 he married the widow of the sculptor Matej Schönherr and took over some of his commissions, such as the Trinity Column in Smečno. After 1746 he worked for Count Černín on decorating the palace chapel and cemetery in Hořín and also on the Černín palace in Prague. For St Ursula’s church in Nové Město (New Town), Prague, he executed a statuary group of St John of Nepomuk (1747). From ...


Iris Kockelbergh

(b Dendermonde, 1742; d Antwerp, April 5, 1815).

Flemish sculptor. He received his first education at the Dendermonde Academie, before going to Antwerp in 1769 to study with Jacobus van der Neer the elder (1718–94), and to attend the Antwerp Academie van Schoone Kunsten; around this time he became a member of the Guild of St Luke. In 1770 he became a master sculptor and ten years later was appointed Assistant Director of the Antwerp Academie van Schoone Kunsten. His works stand on the transition between the Baroque and Neo-classicism; sculpture such as the wooden figures of the Evangelists (Antwerp Cathedral) are classicizing in tendency, whereas his small terracottas of St Luke and St Mark (Brussels, Mus. A. Anc.) are more dynamic and Baroque.

BNB; Thieme–Becker J. Immerseel: De levens en werken der Hollandsche en Vlaamsche kunstschilders, beeldhouwers, graveurs en bouwmeesters [The lives and works of the Dutch and Flemish painters, sculptors, engravers and architects], 3 (Amsterdam, 1843), p. 95...


Ramón Gutiérrez

(b Enguera, Valencia, 1757; d Mexico City, Dec 24, 1816).

Spanish architect, sculptor, and teacher, active in Mexico. He studied at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Carlos, Valencia, at a time when Baroque forms were being rejected in Spain and Neo-classicism was being promoted. He was apprenticed to the sculptor José Puchol Rubio (d 1797), who also taught him extensively about architecture. In 1780 Tolsá moved to Madrid, where he studied under Juan Pascual de Mena and at the Real Academia de Bellas-Artes de S Fernando, where his subjects included painting. There he also designed several reliefs, including the Entry of the Catholic Kings into Granada (1784; Madrid, Real Acad. S Fernando). He was selected as an academician in 1789.

Following the endorsement of Juan Adán and Manuel Francisco Alvarez de la Peña, in 1790 Tolsá succeeded José Arias (c. 1743–88) as director of sculpture at the Real Academia de S Carlos de la Nueva España in Mexico City. He took with him a collection of plaster casts for sculptures, many books, and 154 quintals (7 tonnes) of plaster for the Academia. He arrived in ...


Vernon Hyde Minor

(b Genoa, Jan 2, 1745; d Genoa, Feb 2, 1823).

Italian sculptor. He first studied at the Accademia Ligustica di Belle Arti under Francesco Maria Schiaffino and Pasquale Bocciardo (1710–c. 1791), from whom he absorbed the late Baroque sculptural traditions of sweeping drapery patterns, open poses and dramatic gestures. He later softened and toned down this highly rhetorical style, known as Barocchetto, especially after he came under the influence of Anton Raphael Mengs and Antonio Canova. Nevertheless, he never fully adopted the Neo-classical style.

Traverso’s first contact with the work of Mengs and Canova came some time between 1771 and 1775, when he and the sculptor Francesco Ravaschio (1743–1820), a fellow Genoese, went to Rome under the patronage of the Marchese Michelangelo Cambiaso (1738–1813). According to the Descrizione di Genova e del Genovesato, the earliest account of Traverso’s life, he continued his studies by copying antique sculpture. In 1777 he won the sculpture prize at the Accademia di S Luca in Rome. In the same year the Palazzo Ducale in Genoa burnt down. The loss of Genoese art in the fire, along with renewed patronage in their native city, may have prompted Ravaschio and Traverso to return in ...