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Article

American, 19th century, male.

Activec.1880.

Engraver, illustrator.

A wood engraver, Anderson worked as an illustrator for several American newspapers.

Article

Roberta K. Tarbell

[Margaret] (Frances)

(b Ridgefield, CT, May 2, 1895; d Kennebunk, ME, Jan 4, 1987).

American printmaker, illustrator, painter, and writer. Bacon’s artist parents, Elizabeth and Charles Roswell Bacon, met at the Art Students League around 1890. Bacon lived in Cornish, NH (1903), and in Montreuil-sur-Mer, France (1904–6), and learnt French, Latin, Greek, drawing, and writing from tutors before attending the Kent Place School in Summit, NJ (1909–13). She then attended the School of Applied Design for Women briefly and the New York School of Fine and Applied Arts. In 1914 and 1915, landscape artist Jonas Lie (1880–1940) taught her oil painting. At the Art Students League (1915–20), she took the ‘Women’s Life Class’ with Kenneth Hayes Miller, portraiture with George Bellows, and painting with John Sloan, studied briefly with George Bridgman (1864–1943) and Max Weber, and received critiques in printmaking from Mahonri Young. She then studied modern painting with Andrew Dasburg (...

Article

Irma B. Jaffe

(b New Brunswick, NJ, Aug 15, 1922; d Northampton, MA, June 3, 2000).

American sculptor, illustrator and printmaker. Baskin studied at the New York University School of Architecture and Allied Arts (1939–41), the School of Fine Art (1941–3) and New School for Social Research (1949). He also studied at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière in Paris (1950) and the Accademia delle Belle Arti in Florence (1951). Inspired by the iconic, monolithic imagery of Ancient Egyptian and Sumerian art, and the similar stylistic qualities of Romanesque and Italian Gothic, he consistently and inventively made use of the archaic mode in such prints as the powerful woodcut Man of Peace (1952; see Fern and O’Sullivan, p. 61) as well as in his sculpture. A traditionalist, he carved in wood and stone, and modelled in clay, taking the human figure as his subject. He firmly believed that painting and sculpture should mediate between artist and viewer some moral insight about human experience, and he was convinced that abstract art could not do this. Throughout his career he rejected spatial penetration of form, preferring the holistic look of such works as the ...

Article

Henry Adams

(b Neosho, MO, April 15, 1889; d Kansas City, MO, Jan 19, 1975).

American painter, illustrator, and lithographer. One of the most controversial personalities in American art, both in his lifetime and today, Thomas Hart Benton was a key figure in the American Regionalist movement of the 1930s, when he focused on working-class American subject-matter and was outspoken in his denunciation of European modern painting. Today he is best remembered for this phase of his life, and much criticized because of it. But Benton’s long career is not easily reduced to a single moment or achievement: his legacy was more complex. As a young struggling artist in Paris and New York, he was a leading American modernist and abstractionist, and in his early maturity he became the teacher and lifelong father figure for Jackson Pollock, the most famous of the Abstract Expressionists. He was also a major American writer, who wrote on art and whose autobiography of 1936 became a best-seller. He was also a notable figure in American music who collected American folk songs and devised a new form of harmonica notation that is still in use....

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born 3 March 1902, in Cincinnati (Ohio); died 19 February 1988, in New York.

Painter, printmaker, graphic artist. Figures, nudes, interiors, urban landscapes.

Fourteenth Street School.

Isabel Bishop came to New York in 1918 to study at the School of Applied Design for Women, and in the early 1920s she attended the Arts Students League, studying under Kenneth Hayes Miller and Guy Pène du Bois. Bishop studied the structure and composition of works by Mantegna, Piero della Francesca and Chardin, and was also influenced by Dutch and Flemish painters such as Adriaen Brouwer and Peter Paul Rubens. By ...

Article

Amy Meyers

(b Castle Hedingham, Essex, March 24, 1682; d London, Dec 23, 1749).

English naturalist, painter and graphic artist active in the American colonies. His scientific expeditions to the British colonies in North America and the Caribbean (1712–19 and 1722–6) resulted in the first fully illustrated survey of the flora and fauna of the British Colonies in the Americas. The Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands (1731–47) contains 220 hand-coloured etchings. Catesby received lessons in etching from Joseph Goupy and executed most of the plates after his own drawings in graphite, gouache and watercolour. He also produced several plates after drawings by John White, Georg Dionysius Ehret, Everhard Kick and Claude Aubriet.

Catesby moved against the 18th-century trend in the natural sciences to portray Creation as a neatly ordered hierarchy of clearly definable parts. His pictures helped to promote a revolutionary view of the cosmos as a complex system of interdependent elements and forces. Instead of depicting organisms in the conventional manner as isolated specimens against an empty page, he produced tight compositional arrangements in which animals and plants from similar environments reflect one another’s forms. Catesby’s radical images of an integrated cosmos influenced eminent English and American naturalists, including George Edwards (...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1931, in New York.

Poster artist, illustrator, graphic designer, print artist.

Seymour Chwast became acquainted with graphic art and typography while still at Abraham Lincoln High School, Coney Island. He went on to study illustration and graphic design at the Cooper Union. Since the 1950s, Chwast has been known for his expressive style, which ran counter to the then dominant Formalism. In the 1960s, together with Milton Glaser and Edward Sorel, he founded the Push pin Studio, which was to leave its mark on an entire generation of graphic designers. When the Musée des Arts décoratifs in Paris held a retrospective of the Push pin style, Chwast was naturally included. His touch is allied to a broad knowledge of traditional design, styles and forms, which he applies to illustration. From his beginnings at Cooper Union, he has worked as a woodcut artist, using woodcuts in his graphic work. A committed, non-conformist artist, Chwast was influenced by the work of André François and Saul Steinberg. He has also illustrated numerous children's books. In ...

Article

Reviser Margaret Barlow

(b New York, Aug 18, 1931).

American graphic designer and illustrator. Chwast drew prodigiously in comic-book fashion as a child. From 1948 to 1951 he studied design, illustration, painting, and woodcut at the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, New York, and was influenced by the work of such artists as Paul Klee, Georges Rouault, and Ben Shahn. He worked as a junior designer in the advertising department of the New York Times and then for House and Garden and Glamour magazines. In his spare time, together with Edward Sorel (b 1929) and Reynold Ruffins (b 1930), he published the Push Pin Almanack, a promotional brochure that led to numerous freelance commissions. In 1954, with Sorel, Ruffins, and Milton Glaser, Chwast founded the Push Pin Studios, New York. Both Chwast and Glaser sought to bring a new vitality to graphic design with a return to hand-drawn lettering and illustration in contrast to the then standard use of photomontage and Bauhaus-derived, abstract forms. In the 1950s they each created elastic new ...

Article

Born 27 March 1813 in Roxbury, Massachusetts; died 1888 in New York City.

Lithographer, printer, publisher.

Currier & Ives (firm).

At the age of 15 Currier was apprenticed to the Boston lithographic firm of William S. & John Pendleton. In 1833 he worked for the engraver and printer M.E.D. Brown in Philadelphia before going to New York and publishing his own lithographs in ...

Article

David M. Sokol

(b Philadelphia, PA, June 23, 1822; d Claymont, DE, March 27, 1888).

American illustrator and printmaker. After being exposed early to the Neo-classical style of John Flaxman, Darley began his career as an illustrator in Philadelphia in 1842. Following a sketching trip west of the Mississippi during the summer of that year, he produced outline drawings that were adapted into lithographs appearing in Scenes in Indian Life (1843). His early book illustrations were published in periodicals such as Democratic Review and Godey’s Magazine. Working in line drawing, lithography and wood- and steel-engraving, his first major success was his series of illustrations for John Frost’s Pictorial History of the United States (1844).

After moving to New York in 1848, Darley dominated the field of American illustration with his illustrations of Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper’s tales and novels. He produced about 500 illustrations for Cooper’s novels and a similar number for Benson J. Lossing’s Our Country (1875–7...