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Article

German, 10th century, male.

Illuminator.

This Tegernsee monk is mentioned as the writer of a psalter made for an aristocratic lady called Heilwich. The work has not been preserved, but the dedicatory verses by Froumund von Tegernsee are still in Munich. A miniature in a collection of the national library, Munich, is attributed to an Adalpertus and dates from the 11th century, but it is not improbable that it is by this monk....

Article

Spanish, 15th century, male.

Active in Valencia.

Illuminator.

In documents dated 1438 and 1467, the advocates Miguel Bataller and Juan Carcino have details of Domingo Adzuara's life and work.

Article

French, 16th century, male.

Active in Bordeaux.

Born in Bordeaux.

Illuminator.

Article

French, 14th century, male.

Illuminator.

Albertus was a monk in the abbey of Ste-Bénigne in Dijon.

Article

French, 12th century, male.

Illuminator.

Burgundy School.

A certain Albertus, a native of Trier (Trèves), is mentioned among the abbots of the monastery of Cluny between 1109 and 1122 under the name of Pontius, and between 1122 and 1157 as Pierre. He worked at the same time as Opizon on an extraordinary Bible, the binding of which was encrusted with precious stones and which was kept in the library of Cluny. This magnificent book is no longer in existence, but we can assume that it was one of the masterpieces of this highly original school of which Cluny was the centre in the 12th century....

Article

German, 15th century, male.

Active in Leipzig at the end of the 15th century.

Illuminator.

Article

Alchemy  

Laurinda Dixon

Ancient science from which modern chemistry evolved. Based on the concept of transmutation—the changing of substances at the elemental level—it was both a mechanical art and an exalted philosophy. Practitioners attempted to combine substances containing the four elements (fire, water, earth, and air) in perfect balance, ultimately perfecting them into a fifth, the quintessence (also known as the philosopher’s stone) via the chemical process of distillation. The ultimate result was a substance, the ‘philosopher’s stone’, or ‘elixir of life’, believed capable of perfecting, or healing, all material things. Chemists imitated the Christian life cycle in their operations, allegorically marrying their ingredients, multiplying them, and destroying them so that they could then be cleansed and ‘resurrected’. They viewed their work as a means of attaining salvation and as a solemn Christian duty. As such, spiritual alchemy was sanctioned, legitimized, and patronized by the Church. Its mundane laboratory procedures were also supported by secular rulers for material gain. Metallurgists employed chemical apparatus in their attempts to transmute base metals into gold, whereas physicians and apothecaries sought ultimately to distill a cure-all elixir of life. The manifold possibilities inherent in such an outcome caused Papal and secular authorities to limit and control the practice of alchemy by requiring licences and punishing those who worked without authorization....

Article

Italian, 15th century, male.

Painter, illuminator. Religious subjects.

Florentine School.

Alexander was the son of Antonio Simeone of Florence. A hermit of the Order of St Augustine, he created the illuminations for a book of prayers for Lorenzo Strozzi.

Cambridge (Fitzwilliam Library): Book of Prayers...

Article

French, 12th century, male.

Miniaturist, illuminator. Religious subjects.

A monk, this artist illustrated a manuscript of St Augustine's City of God.

Boulogne-sur-Mer (Bibliothèque municipale): The City of God

Article

French, 15th century, male.

Illuminator.