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Article

(b Salzburg, May 1, 1753; d Prague, June 25, 1829).

Austrian painter, printmaker, draughtsman, illustrator and teacher, active in Bohemia. He was taught by his father, the sculptor and painter Josef Bergler the elder (1718–88), and, during his stay in Italy, by Martin Knoller in Milan and Anton von Maron in Rome. An accomplished portrait painter, he was employed as official painter by bishops and cardinals at Passau and painted a number of altarpieces in Austria and especially in Bohemia. He helped establish the Academy of Fine Arts, Prague (1800), which placed a new emphasis on draughtsmanship, composition and Classical subjects and models. As the first Director of the Academy, Bergler won new academic prestige for art in Bohemia and, for himself, a privileged position in obtaining commissions such as the Curtain at the Estates Theatre (sketches, 1803–4; Prague, N.G., Convent of St Agnes). He also published albums of engravings intended as models (Compositions and Sketches...

Article

Ismael Gutiérrez Pastor

(b Villena, Alicante, c. 1645; d Madrid, June 28, 1717).

Spanish painter, engraver and writer. He began his training in Murcia with Nicolás de Villacis (c. 1618–94) and Mateo Gilarte (c. 1620–after 1680), who both worked in a naturalist and tenebrist style. He travelled to Rome in the 1660s and came into contact with the Italian Baroque, especially the work of Pietro da Cortona and Carlo Maratti. On his return he was first in Valencia, where the work of Jerónimo Jacinto Espinosa became a strong influence. Towards 1674 he established himself in Madrid, where he entered the circle of Juan Carreño de Miranda.

García Hidalgo’s numerous paintings were frequently signed, and he painted a good many for the Augustinian Order in Madrid, Madrigal de las Altas Torres, Santiago de Compostela and Sigüenza (e.g the Vision of St Augustine, 1680; Sigüenza Cathedral), and for the Carmelite Order in Alba de Tormes, Peñaranda de Bracamonte and Segovia (e.g. the ...

Article

Sheila O’Connell

(b London, Nov 10, 1697; d London, 25–26 Oct 1764).

English painter and engraver. He played a crucial part in establishing an English school of painting, both through the quality of his painting and through campaigns to improve the status of the artist in England. He also demonstrated that artists could become independent of wealthy patrons by publishing engravings after their own paintings. He is best remembered for the satirical engravings that gave the name ‘Hogarthian’ to low-life scenes of the period.

William Hogarth was born in St Bartholomew’s Close, London. His father, Richard Hogarth, was a Latin scholar and schoolmaster, who also became the proprietor of a coffee-house that failed; as a consequence, he was confined for four years (1708–12) as a debtor in the Fleet Prison. His misfortunes powerfully impressed Hogarth with the importance of maintaining financial independence. Having shown a talent for drawing, on 2 February 1713 he was apprenticed to Ellis Gamble, a silver-plate engraver of Blue Cross Street, Leicester Fields (now Leicester Square), London, and by ...

Article

Susan Morris

(b Cologne, 1731; d Oxford, Dec 12, 1812).

English painter and printmaker of German birth. The son of a watchmaker, he moved to England c. 1754 and taught music and drawing in London, Lewes and Bristol before settling in Oxford as a drawing-master and leader of the band at the city’s Music Room. In 1763 he published 12 etchings of views near Oxford; further sets of etchings followed in 1771 and 1772. His only Royal Academy exhibit was a watercolour landscape, shown in 1773 when he was listed as an honorary exhibitor. There is no evidence that he sold his work. Nearly 500 drawings by Malchair are in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford; these include unpretentious cottage subjects and panoramic views of the city (e.g. Oxford in Flood Time, from Shotover Hill, 1791) characterized by an atmospheric haziness achieved through blurred pencil lines and grey or pastel wash. Visits to north Wales in 1789, 1791 and 1795 encouraged him to use bolder grey washes, strong pencil lines and vertiginous mountain compositions as, for example, in ...

Article

Sonja Weih-Krüger

[Preisler]

German family of painters and engravers, of Bohemian origin, also active in Denmark. Daniel Preissler (b Prague, 8 March 1627; d Nuremberg, 19 June 1665), a pupil in Dresden of Christian Schiebling (1603–63), lived from 1652 in Nuremberg, becoming a master in 1654 and being nominated to the city’s Greater Council in 1662. He painted altarpieces and numerous portraits, including a Self-portrait of the Artist with his Family (1665; Nuremberg, Ger. Nmus.)

Daniel’s son, Johann Daniel Preissler (b Nuremberg, 17 January 1666; d Nuremberg, 13 October 1737), was born after the death of his father; ten years later his mother married her husband’s pupil, Heinrich Popp (1637–82), who became Johann Daniel’s first teacher. On Popp’s death in 1682 Johann Daniel was apprenticed to the painter Johann Murrer (1644–1713). He spent the period 1688–96 in Venice and Rome, returning in ...

Article

Krystyna Sroczyńska

[pseud. Ptaszek ]

(b Warsaw, June 15, 1764; d Warsaw, April 20, 1826).

Polish painter, printmaker and teacher. He trained as a master builder and then from 1780 studied under André Lebrun (1737–1811) in the school of painting at the Royal Castle in Warsaw, as well as under Jakub Monaldi and Simon Bogumił Zug. In 1785 Vogel produced several watercolour copies of vedute of Warsaw by Bernardo Bellotto, which laid the foundations of his future career. He also became Bellotto’s first successor in the field of veduta painting. From 1785 Vogel painted over 100 vedute of the capital and its environs (e.g. Panoramic View of Warsaw from Praga, 1816; St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.), many of which, because of their detail and precision, were later used to reconstruct monuments destroyed during World War II. From 1787 until 1800, on the recommendation of Stanislav II Poniatowski, who appointed him his Government Illustrator, and later, on his own initiative, Vogel made several trips around Poland, painting views of castles and their ruins, and of large and small towns mainly in the Wisła River basin. From ...