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Article

Felicia Lewandowski

(b Verona, Aug 12, 1666; d Verona, April 21, 1740).

Italian painter and printmaker. His altarpieces and history paintings, which unite late Baroque classicism with Venetian colour, brought new life to north Italian painting. The son of Lucia Boschetti and Francesco Balestra, a wealthy merchant, he studied literature, rhetoric and the humanities, but, after lessons in drawing and perspective with Giovanni Zeffis (d 1688) and one Monsignor Bianchini (1646–1724), he moved to Venice in 1687 and trained with Antonio Bellucci. In 1691 he transferred to Rome, where he studied with Carlo Maratti, whose art continued a classical tradition that can be traced back to Raphael, and where he also absorbed the work of Annibale Carracci and Domenichino. In 1694 Balestra’s large drawing of the Fall of the Giants (Rome, Gal. Accad. N. S Luca) won first prize in a competition at the Accademia di S Luca. In 1695 he returned to Verona, where he was acclaimed as the chief exponent in the Veneto of Maratti’s late Baroque classicism. His pictures of this period were mainly small religious works, such as the ...

Article

(b Türkheim, bapt April 15, 1688; d Augsburg, April 2, 1762).

German painter, teacher, draughtsman and printmaker. His frescoes and altarpieces and his teaching established him as the dominant figure in the art life of Augsburg in the earlier 18th century. He came from a family of well-known Swabian sculptors, cabinetmakers and painters, with whom he probably initially trained. The Bavarian Duke Maximilian Philip paid for him to study (1702–8) with the Munich court painter Johann Andreas Wolff, after which he was summoned by the Elector of the Palatinate to decorate the court church of St Hubertus in Düsseldorf (1708–9; destr.). In 1710 or 1712 Bergmüller frescoed the church of Kreuzpullach, near Wolfratshausen. In his request for permission to marry and for mastership in Augsburg in 1712, he referred to an otherwise undocumented stay in the Netherlands. He settled permanently in the Imperial Free City in 1713 and attended its Reichstädtische Kunstakademie from 1715. From this time he rose to become the most influential painter and teacher in Augsburg, with apprentices coming from beyond the city, including ...

Article

(b Speyer, 1709; bur; Mannheim, Dec 21, 1760).

German painter, draughtsman and etcher. Trained by Johann Georg Dathan (1703–c. 1748) in Speyer, he was a court painter in Mannheim from 1733 until his death, from 1755 gallery director and from 1757 a privy councillor. Of the religious works that, as a court painter, he was obliged to produce, the only ones that survive are frescoes (spandrel paintings) depicting the Four Quarters of the World (after 1748; Mannheim, former Jesuit church of SS Ignaz und Franz Xavier) and ceiling paintings in Electress Elizabeth Augusta’s library in Schloss Mannheim.

Brinckmann’s landscapes show two opposing trends. On the one hand, there are small, detailed picturesque landscapes in courtly or rural settings with suitable accessories, often with many figures. According to the terms of his contract, he had to produce two such paintings each year; typical examples are the Court Gardens at Mannheim (1745) and Wolfbrunnens near Heidelberg...

Article

Françoise de la Moureyre

(b Cuillé, Mayenne, 1680; d Paris, May 11, 1723).

French sculptor, designer and engraver. A pupil of François Girardon, he went to Potsdam in 1701, where he executed decorative sculpture for the Portal of Fortuna (destr. 1945) to the designs of Jean de Bodt. On his return to France he was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale in 1707 with a Death of Adonis (plaster; untraced), changing the subject for his morceau de réception of 1713 to the Death of Meleager, an affecting recumbent statuette (marble; Paris, Louvre). Chiefly active as a decorative sculptor specializing in trophies, he also contributed to the decoration of the chapel at the château of Versailles (1708–10; various works in situ), the choir of Notre-Dame, Paris (1711–14; destr.), the Tuileries Palace (1713; destr.), the Luxembourg Palace (1717; destr.), the Louvre (1717–22; destr.), the Château de la Muette, Paris (1720; destr.) and the church of St Roch, Paris (...

Article

Ismael Gutiérrez Pastor

(b Villena, Alicante, c. 1645; d Madrid, June 28, 1717).

Spanish painter, engraver and writer. He began his training in Murcia with Nicolás de Villacis (c. 1618–94) and Mateo Gilarte (c. 1620–after 1680), who both worked in a naturalist and tenebrist style. He travelled to Rome in the 1660s and came into contact with the Italian Baroque, especially the work of Pietro da Cortona and Carlo Maratti. On his return he was first in Valencia, where the work of Jerónimo Jacinto Espinosa became a strong influence. Towards 1674 he established himself in Madrid, where he entered the circle of Juan Carreño de Miranda.

García Hidalgo’s numerous paintings were frequently signed, and he painted a good many for the Augustinian Order in Madrid, Madrigal de las Altas Torres, Santiago de Compostela and Sigüenza (e.g the Vision of St Augustine, 1680; Sigüenza Cathedral), and for the Carmelite Order in Alba de Tormes, Peñaranda de Bracamonte and Segovia (e.g. the ...

Article

Franco Panvini Rosati

Italian family of engravers and medallists, of Bavarian origin. They worked mainly in the Roman mint from the mid-17th century to the end of the 18th. The medals they made are notable above all for their documentary value relating to the history of Rome and the city’s monuments. They were technically skilled but somewhat unimaginative portrait artists. Johan Andreas Hamerani (b Adensburg, c. 1600; d Livorno, 1644) arrived in Rome in 1615 during the pontificate of Pope Paul V. Although he worked in the papal mint, he did not execute annual medals. His son Alberto Hamerani (b Rome, 10 Oct 1620; d Rome, 21 June 1677) worked for a short time at the mint of Massa Carrara, then, between 1657 and 1669, in Rome, as assistant first to Gaspare Morone Mola and later to Girolamo Lucenti. From 1667 he engraved papal seals. Noteworthy among his medals was one commemorating the entry into Rome of Queen Christina of Sweden (...

Article

M. J. C. Otten

(bapt Amsterdam, Sept 10, 1645; bur Haarlem, June 15, 1708).

Dutch etcher, draughtsman, painter, sculptor, medallist and writer. He is best known for his political caricatures of Louis XIV of France and for his prints glorifying William III, Stadholder of the Netherlands and King of England. De Hooghe is an important representative of the late Dutch Baroque. His style is characterized by strong contrasts of lights and darks and an expressive composition. In his prints he combined contemporary personalities with allegorical figures. His prints are numerous, but few of his drawings survive and his paintings are rarer still. De Hooghe’s first commission for an etching probably came from Constantijn Huygens the elder, secretary to William III; this was Zeestraet (1667; Hollstein, no. 287). In 1668 de Hooghe was in Paris, where he produced some book illustrations, but he returned to Amsterdam, where from 1670 to 1691 he illustrated the annual newsheet Hollandsche Mercurius. He regularly produced such political prints as ...

Article

G. Komelova

(Ivanovich)

(b Smolenskoye, Vereysky district [now Moscow region], 1716-18; d St Petersburg, Feb 25, 1770).

Russian draughtsman and engraver. He was the son of a priest, and from 1729 he studied at the St Petersburg Naval Academy. In August 1731 he was transferred to the instrument-making department of the Academy of Sciences, where he helped to make land-surveying instruments, including theodolites (a training that was of value when he later came to sketch views of St Petersburg); he also learnt how to carve moulds for dies under Georg Unfertsagt (1701–67); and he studied drawing under two members of the Academy staff, Ottmar Elliger II and Elias Grimmel (1703–58). In June 1743 Makhayev was made director of the cartographic and die-carving section of the Academy, and he was employed there for the rest of his life. Together with his pupils he helped to produce the Atlas rossiyskoy imperii (‘Atlas of the Russian Empire’; 1740s); in addition, he provided inscriptions for diplomas for honorary members of the Academy, for porcelain snuff-boxes and for a large silver shrine at the tomb of ...

Article

Manuela B. Mena Marqués

(b Camerano, May 18, 1625; d Rome, Dec 15, 1713).

Italian painter, draughtsman and printmaker. He was the last major Italian artist of the classical tradition that had originated with Raphael, and his pre-eminence among the artists of his time marks the triumph of classicism. Nonetheless his art unites the virtues of disegno and colore, and he created a grandiose and decorative style that satisfied the demands of the Church. At the same time his late works had a grace and refinement that anticipated the development of the Rococo and Neo-classicism.

Carlo Maratti was the son of the Dalmatian Tommaso Maratti and Faustina Masini, and his half-brother Bernabeo Francioni was also a painter. His first biographer, Bellori, described how as a boy Maratti made copies of the coloured engravings of saints that were sold in Camerano, and how Bernabeo showed some of these copies to Andrea Camassei, who advised that Maratti should be brought to Rome. He moved to Rome in ...

Article

Annamaria Negro Spina

(b Crevalcore, Jan 2, 1662; d Bologna, Nov 20, 1747).

Italian painter and engraver. He was a pupil of Giuseppe Maria Crespi and was active in Bologna (where he painted a landscape fresco for the former orphanage of S Bartolomeo) and in Parma, Modena and Ferrara. Buscaroli attributed to him the Landscape with Ploughmen and the Landscape with Travellers (both Bologna, Leoni priv. col.; for illustrations, see Buscaroli). Mattioli’s engravings, based on his own designs or those by other artists, among them Guido Reni, include landscapes, allegorical scenes, portraits, book illustrations and festival decorations. Most famous are his illustrations for the republication of Giulio Cesare Croce’s Bertoldo e Bertoldino (Bologna, 1736) after an original set of etchings by Crespi. Other reproductive prints by Mattioli include the Woman of Samaria after Annibale Carracci, St Jerome and the Agave after Crespi (for illustrations, see Merriman), the Immaculate Conception after Donato Creti and numerous landscapes after Guercino.

Bolaffi R. Buscaroli: Pittura di paesaggio in Italia...