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Emma Packer

(b ?London, c. 1470; d ?London, 1532).

English goldsmith. He was the son of a London goldsmith and was the most successful goldsmith working at the Tudor court; his work bridged the transition between the Gothic and the Renaissance styles. He was an official at the Mint from 1504 to almost the end of his life, his appointment possibly facilitated by his marriage to Elizabeth, granddaughter of Sir Hugh Bryce (d 1496), Court Goldsmith to Henry VIII. In 1524 Amadas became the first working goldsmith to become Master of the Jewel House to Henry VIII, an office he retained until 1532, supplying spangles, wire and ribbons to the court. In the 1520s his orders included a large amount of plate for gifts to foreign ambassadors; he also supplied a number of New Year’s gifts for the court. Cardinal Thomas Wolsey was one of Amadas’ most important clients, and Amadas supplied him with a number of lavish objects. Other clients included ...


Italian, 16th century, male.

Born 1496; died 1553.

Engraver. Figures. Medals.

Giovanni Bernardi was initially an engraver of medals in the service of Alfonso d'Este and became one of the most celebrated freestone engravers of the Italian Renaissance, noted particularly for his intaglio work on lead crystal. His style was influenced by Michelangelo....


Kim W. Woods

(fl 1428; d 1463/4).

South Netherlandish bronze-founder. He is documented in Brussels from 1428, when he became a town councillor. He held the offices of receiver in 1435, churchwarden of Notre-Dame-la-Chapelle in 1438 and 1450, and surveyor of the forests of Soigne (1443) and Brabant (1457–9). In 1450 he was asked to advise Philip the Good, 3rd Duke of Burgundy, on the practicability of diverting a stream from the village of Anderlecht to supply the Coudenberg Palace in Brussels. In 1454 and 1458 he received payments for two royal tombs commissioned by Philip the Good. The first was that of Louis de Mâle, Count of Flanders (d 1384), destined for St Pierre, Lille. It included effigies of Louis, his wife Margaret of Brabant and their daughter Margaret of Flanders (Philip the Good’s grandmother). The tomb was destroyed during and after the French Revolution, but drawings and engravings show that 24 bronze figures (identified through coats of arms and inscriptions as the various descendants of the first two dukes of Burgundy) were set in niches along the sides of the black stone sarcophagus on which the three bronze figures rested. Jacques de Gérines was paid the huge sum of ...


Gordon Campbell

(fl 1518–66).

Sicilian goldsmith. His early work is Gothic, notably a magnificent processional monstrance with Gothic spires (1536–8; Enna, Mus. Alessi) and a reliquary of S Agata (1532; Palermo Cathedral). From the 1540s he adopted a Renaissance style, as exemplified by a crozier (Palermo, Gal. Reg. Sicilia) and a reliquary of S Cristina (Palermo Cathedral)....


(d c. 1417–20).

Goldsmith, sculptor, and painter, probably of German origin. None of his works is known to have survived, but he is mentioned twice in mid-15th-century texts: in the second book of Lorenzo Ghiberti’s Commentarii and in the manuscript of the Anonimo Magliabecchiano. Both texts relate that Gusmin died during the reign of Pope Martin (i.e. Martin V, reg 1417–31), in the year of the 438th Olympiad (i.e. between 1415 and 1420). He worked in the service of the Duke of Anjou, who was forced to destroy Gusmin’s greatest work, a golden altar, in order to provide cash for his ‘public needs’. Gusmin consequently retired to a hermitage where he led a saintly life, painting and teaching young artists. Although it is clear from his account that Ghiberti never knew the master or saw any of his original works, he stated that he had seen casts of his sculptures, which, he said, were as fine as the work of the ancient Greeks, although the figures were rather short. There have been numerous attempts to identify Gusmin with artists, both German and Italian, fitting the account of Ghiberti and the Anonimo Magliabecchiano. Swarzenski first named Gusmin as the author of the alabaster Rimini altar (Frankfurt am Main, Liebieghaus), but this has now been demonstrated to be of Netherlandish workmanship. Krautheimer proposed a convincing reconstruction of Gusmin’s career, suggesting that his Angevin patron was ...


Detlef Zinke

(b ?Strasbourg, c. 1410; d Saarbrücken, before 1485).

German painter. He is recorded in 1438 as a master and in 1444 as a member of the guild of painters and goldsmiths in Strasbourg. In 1447, together with Hans Tieffental (fl 1391–1448), he undertook to paint and gild a stone crucifix (untraced) in Metz. Probably directly after this he entered the service of Count Johann III of Nassau-Saarbrücken (d 1472) as court painter and moved to Saarbrücken. In 1453 he concluded a contract for an extensive series of murals (destr.) showing scenes from the Lives of SS Ursula and Barbara (among others) for a newly built chapel in the church of the Carmelite convent in Metz. No further record of his work is known until his death.

Haller has been credited, however, with several panels from altarpieces that were of considerable significance in the evolution of painting in the Upper Rhine area and that influenced the work of Martin Schongauer (...


J. Steyaert

(fl 1466; d 1502–3).

South Netherlandish goldsmith. He is cited as goldsmith and ‘varlet de chambre’ to Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy (reg 1433–77). Among Loyet’s works for the Duke were images presented to churches, one of which survives: a gold, silver and enamel reliquary representing the kneeling Duke accompanied by St George, completed in 1466–7 and donated to St Lambert’s Cathedral, Liège (in situ; for illustration see Burgundy, House of family §(5)), in 1471. This delicate reliquary, conceived as a votive group, provides some idea of more imposing works (all untraced), including two life-size silver statues of Charles and two portrait busts, the former for the churches in Aardenburg and Scheut (nr Brussels), the latter for churches in Geeraardsbergen and Linkebeek, listed in payments of 1477.

Loyet also worked for the Burgundian mint. In 1470 he was commissioned to engrave dies for new coinage, based on designs supplied by ...


Lon R. Shelby


(fl 1487; d after 1518).

German goldsmith. Because Schmuttermayer wrote a booklet on pinnacles (Fialenbüchlein), published in Nuremberg in the late 1480s, most scholars have assumed he was a master mason. But although in his prologue he mentioned ‘other great and famous masters, such as the Junkers of Prague’, by which he meant the Parler family of master masons, he did not state his own profession.

In the late 1480s Schmuttermayer’s name began to appear regularly in the court records of Nuremberg, and the first references to him intimated that he was a goldsmith. In 1487 he was sued by a woman who claimed that he had a silver cane that belonged to her. In the same year Hermann Laisner certified that he owed money to Albrecht Dürer and Hanns Schmuttermayer. This was probably Albrecht Dürer the elder, who was a goldsmith and father of the famous artist. In 1489 a financial agreement was recorded between Hanns Schmuttermayer, ...


Daniel Kletke

(b c. 1450; d 1527).

German goldsmith and architect. He was one of the most important goldsmiths in Augsburg during the transitional period from Late Gothic to Renaissance and worked there as an independent master after 1478, receiving commissions for both secular and ecclesiastical works. From 1486 he was employed by the convent of SS Ulrich and Afra in Augsburg, and he gained particular renown for the conservation of old goldsmith’s works including the abbey’s Romanesque croziers. Interestingly, some of his pieces echo Romanesque as well as 15th-century forms. Such commissions as an architectural model (1498) for the Prince-Bishop of Brixen and a silver figure of the Virgin for Mariae Himmelfahrt, Kaisheim, may account for his increasing fame. Notable is the portable altar from Eichstätt (1492; Munich, Schloss Nymphenburg) with a cycle of engravings and statuettes depicting St Willibald and other saints. The character of the engravings has been linked to the works of Hans Holbein the elder (Fritz). Seld’s extensive travels in ...


Janez Höfler

(fl Ulm, 1481–?1527).

German painter. He is recorded in Ulm between 1481 and 1514; later references come from 1522 and 1527. Around the same period in Ulm Felix Stocker was active as a goldsmith c. 1470 and Anton Stocker (d before 1503) was active as a painter between c. 1495 and 1500; the relationships are unknown. Jörg Stocker’s first authenticated work is a Christ Carrying the Cross (c. 1481–3; Ulm, Ulm. Mus.), with kneeling members of the Ulm patrician family Roth. The winged altarpiece for the Dorfkirche at Ennetach was commissioned by Graf Endres von Waldburg-Sonnenburg in 1496 (wings, Sigmaringen, Fürstl. Hohenzoll. Samml. & Hofbib.). The Christ Carrying the Cross on its outside panels is signed by Stocker’s pupil Martin Schaffner. Other works that can be connected with it on stylistic grounds include the panels of the Passion altarpiece for St Martin at Oberstadion and sections of a winged altarpiece at Schloss Gross-Allmendingen (both ...