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Article

Greek, 16th century, male.

Active in Nicaea before 1588.

Painter. History painting, portraits.

According to Zani, Adolus reproduced an old Byzantine painting dating from the 14th century, the Portrait of Epiphanias, Bishop of Constance.

Article

Alipi  

Russian, 11th – 12th century, male.

Died 17 August 1114.

Painter.

This artist was a monk who took his name from that of the monastery in the caves of Kiev. He painted images of the oldest saints, having learned his art from the Byzantine painters who decorated the monastery church in ...

Article

Italian, 13th – 14th century, male.

Active Lombard artist, active at around the same time as Giotto.

Fresco artist.

Andreino da Edesia was probably of Byzantine origin but biographers disagree about the artist. Zani refers to him from 1290 to 1310 and Lomazzo in 1330. The fresco of ...

Article

Angelus  

Italian, 13th century, male.

Painter. Religious subjects.

Venetian School.

Of Venetian origin. An Behold the Man ( Ecce Homo) in the Byzantine style is signed Angelus painted this ( Angelus pinxit).

Venice (Mus. Correr): Ecce homo (signed)

Article

Astrapa  

Serb, 13th – 14th century, male.

Painter.

This Byzantine artist was working around the end of the 13th and beginning of the 14th century. Employed as painter to the king Milutin, he had many assistants in his studio, including in particular his sons Entychios and Mikhail. A stylistic shift towards greater expression was discernible in the work emerging from their studio, dealing with subjects such as poetry, fables and religious history. Numerous frescoes are attributed to these artists, for instance ...

Article

A. Dean McKenzie

(fl c. 1290–1311). Byzantine painter active in Macedonia. ‘Astrapas’ (Gr.: ‘lightning’) is a pseudonym, and some scholars doubt that it refers to a particular artist. Although the name Astrapas appears together with the name Michael on the wall painting (1295) in the church of the Mother of God Peribleptos in Ohrid, it is not clear whether the two names belong to one and the same artist or two different people. It is also not possible to distinguish the style of Astrapas from that of Michael and Eutychios who also painted frescoes there. The signature of ‘Astrapas’ as painter appears in the exonarthex of the church of the Mother of God (Sveta Bogorodica) Ljeviška (1307–9) in Prizren, where his work has been associated with that of the so-called ‘Master of the Prophets’. Astrapas has also been credited with the frescoes (c. 1311) in the church of the Ascension in the monastery of Žića, in Serbia. His style of painting is characterized by dramatic composition and lively, lifelike figures achieved through the use of classicizing three-dimensional techniques and a palette of warm colours against dark blue backgrounds. His nationality has been disputed, some scholars believing him to be an itinerant Greek artist recruited from Thessaloniki into the service of the Serbian king ...

Article

In the 20th century, discussion of the relationship between Byzantine art and the art of the Latin West evolved in tandem with scholarship on Byzantine art itself. Identified as the religious imagery and visual and material culture of the Greek Orthodox Empire based at Constantinople between ad 330 and 1453, studies of Byzantine art often encompassed Post-Byzantine art and that of culturally allied states such as Armenian Cilicia, Macedonia, and portions of Italy. As such fields as Palaiologan family manuscripts and wall paintings, Armenian manuscripts, and Crusader manuscripts and icons emerged, scholars identified new intersections between Western medieval and Byzantine art. Subtle comparisons emerged with the recognition that Byzantine art was not static but changed over time in style and meaning, although most analyses identified Byzantine art as an accessible reservoir of the naturalistic, classicizing styles of antiquity. Scholars considering the 7th-century frescoes at S Maria Antiqua and mosaics at S Maria in Cosmedin, both in Rome, and the 8th-century frescoes at Castelseprio and Carolingian manuscripts such as the Coronation Gospels of Charlemagne (Vienna, Schatzkam. SCHK XIII) used formal comparisons with works such as pre-iconoclastic icons at St Catherine’s Monastery on Sinai, along with the history of Byzantine iconoclasm, to argue for the presence of Greek painters in the West. Similarly, Ottonian and Romanesque painting and luxury arts, such as ivories, provided examples of the appropriation of Byzantine imperial imagery. Yet the study of works such as the great 12th-century ...

Article

12th century, male.

Active in Padua in 1143.

Of Byzantine origin.

Painter.

Article

Daniel  

Italian, 12th century, male.

Fresco artist.

A Byzantine artist active in Brindisi about 1197.

Article

Dimitris Plantzos

[Satra]

Greek city situated on the island of Crete, by the north-west foothills of mount Psiloritis (anc. Ida), 30 km south-east of the present-day city of Rethymnon. It was a centre for Aegean and Greek culture from the Prehistoric to the Byzantine periods (4th millennium bc–7th century bc).

Ancient Eleutherna is a typical example of a Cretan polis (city) inhabited continuously from at least from the 9th century bc (the so-called ‘Dark Age’ of Greek history) to the late Roman and Byzantine period (6th–7th century bc). Even before that, archaeological finds suggest the existence of a continuous presence on the site from the late Neolithic (4th millennium bc) through to a flourishing Minoan site of the 3rd to 2nd millennia bc. Although later construction all but eliminated traces of prehistoric architecture, there is still significant evidence to confirm unbroken habitation. In historical times (9th century...