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[Cesari, Giuseppe]

(b Arpino, nr Sora, 1568; d Rome, July 3, 1640).

Italian painter and draughtsman . His father, Muzio Cesari, was probably a painter; his brother, Bernardino Cesari (1571–1622), became his principal assistant. Giuseppe’s precocious talent for drawing led his mother to take him to Rome in 1581–2, where he became a colour mixer under Niccolò Circignani, then directing the decoration of the third of the great Vatican Logge for Gregory XIII. Circignani promoted him to the painting team; a tiny figure of Abundance on the vault of the seventh compartment has been identified as his earliest known work. During 1583 Giuseppe also worked at the Vatican on the monochrome figure of Samson with the Gates of Gaza in the Sala Vecchia degli Svizzeri and the restoration of the Prophets and Virtues painted by the Raphael workshop in the Sala dei Palafrenieri. Towards the end of the year the Pope granted Giuseppe a salary. Probably in 1584–5 he contributed a fresco of the ...


(b Hanoversch Münden, 1599 or 1602; d Hanoversch Münden, 1669).

German engraver, draughtsman and painter. His presence in the northern Netherlands c. 1620 is suggested by the woodcut Holy Family under a Tree (Hollstein, no. 4), which renders a design taken from Abraham Bloemaert in a chiaroscuro produced with one line and two tone blocks—a technique developed by Hendrick Goltzius. Between 1623 and 1629–30 Büsinck lived in Paris, producing woodcuts for the publisher Melchior Tavernier (1564–1641) after drawings by Georges Lallemand. The Holy Family with the Infant St John (1623; h 3) shows a more Italian technique, restricting contours to the black line and placing less emphasis on the use of the tone blocks. Subsequent work, such as the Moses (h 1) and the Apostles series (h 5–19) after Lallemand, synthesizes the clear black outlines of the Italian tradition with a lively decorative sway characteristic of the Dutch 17th-century style; while the systematic layers of parallel lines and crosshatching used in the ...



Nancy Ward Neilson

[Crespi, Giovanni Battista]

(b ?Cerano, nr Novara, c. 1575; d Milan, Oct 23, 1632).

Italian painter and designer. He is one of the most prominent of the Milanese artists of the early 17th century whose work represents a transitional phase between Mannerism and Baroque. He was highly esteemed in his day and patronized by the Fabbrica of Milan Cathedral, the civic authorities and highly distinguished private patrons, such as the Borromeo and Gonzaga families and the House of Savoy. Much of his work for private patrons is lost. Although he is chiefly famous as a painter, he also did much work as a designer, from church façades to sacred vestments.

From 17th-century sources both Busto Arsizio and Cerano have been proposed as his birthplace. The latter seems the more likely since the artist adopted its name, but it is also possible that he was born in Milan, where his father, Raffaele Crespi, a minor decorative fresco painter, was active from the late 1550s. His date of birth is based on his age as given in the Milanese census of ...


Nancy Ward Neilson

(b ?Milan, 1597–1600; d Milan, July 19, 1630).

Italian painter and draughtsman. He was the most original artist working in Milan in the 1620s, the first to break with the wilfully exaggerated manner of Lombard Mannerism and to develop an early Baroque style, distinguished by clarity of form and content. In this context his Supper of St Carlo Borromeo (Milan, S Maria della Passione; see fig. below) is one of the most famous early 17th-century pictures in northern Italy. Crespi’s style, both as a painter and as a draughtsman, is a fusion of Lombard and Emilian sources.

In the Milanese census of 1610 Crespi was listed as a ten-year-old living with his family in the parish of S Eufemia. The family is thought to have come from Busto Arsizio, north of Milan, but Daniele may have been born in the Lombard capital; certainly his education should be considered Milanese. His teacher is unknown, but in 1619 Crespi was already described as a promising painter (Borsieri) and is documented (Delfinone) as working with ...


Francesco Frangi

[Enrico, Antonio d’; il Tanzio]

(b Riale d’Alagna, 1575–80; d 1632–3).

Italian painter. He is best known for his dramatic oil paintings executed in a unique style of Caravaggesque realism modified by the elegance of Lombard Late Mannerism. He also adopted elements of a robust and unsophisticated realism from Piedmontese art, as is evident in his frescoes for the sacromonte at Varallo (see Varallo, Sacro Monte, §2). His drawings are in the highly refined and meticulously finished technique associated with Renaissance draughtsmanship.

Tanzio’s family had lived at Varallo since 1586, and he had two brothers who were also artists: the fresco painter Melchiorre d’Enrico, with whom he may have trained, and the sculptor and architect Giovanni d’Enrico (c. 1560–1644). On 12 February 1600 a safe conduct was issued to Melchiorre and Tanzio to leave Valsesia to visit Rome for the Holy Year. Tanzio’s first biographer, Cotta, wrote that the artist studied ‘in the Academies of Rome’ and that in ...


Pierre-Yves Kairis

(bapt Liège, Aug 6, 1594; d Liège, 1660).

Flemish painter. He was trained in Liège by Jean Taulier (d ?1636), probably one of the late Mannerists of the school of Lambert Lombard. It seems likely that he next went to a painter in Dinant known only as Perpète. Abry recorded that Douffet worked in Rubens’s workshop from 1612 to 1614; this is doubtful, though he probably did study in Antwerp. After 1614 Douffet probably went to Italy, and in 1620 and 1622 he is recorded, with Valentin de Boulogne, in Rome. He knew such Caravaggisti as Bartolomeo Manfredi and Nicolas Tournier. No work from this period is known.

Douffet’s oeuvre consists of only about 20 known paintings. The earliest is the Finding of the True Cross (1624; Munich, Alte Pin.). In this he appears uninfluenced by the Rubensian Baroque style of painting then current in the Spanish Netherlands, a surprising fact considering the proximity of the town of Liège to the Flemish border. Instead he introduced Italian-style Caravaggism to Liège. This canvas seems closer to Simon Vouet than to Valentin and the other followers of Manfredi, which is one of the reasons for rejecting the identification of Douffet with the ...


Elena Testaferrata

[Chimenti, Jacopo]

(b Florence, April 30, 1551; d Florence, Sept 30, 1640).

Italian painter and draughtsman. He lived and worked in Florence all his life, and he followed Santi di Tito in the return to the clarity of the Florentine High Renaissance. He absorbed the ideas of his more innovative contemporaries and became one of the most popular painters of altarpieces for churches in Florence and Tuscany. He was also a distinguished still-life painter and received many commissions from private patrons, among them the Medici. Empoli’s painting is distinguished by simple, lucid forms, strong colour and direct and clear interpretation of the subject.

He was the son of Chimenti di Girolamo, a cloth merchant, and of Alessandra Tatti, the daughter of the sculptor Jacopo Sansovino. He trained under the Mannerist painter Maso da San Friano. The Adoration of the Shepherds (Plymouth, City Mus. & A.G.) is one of a small number of paintings attributed to his earliest years (Bianchini, 1980). The two framing figures and the hooded shepherd on the left echo Maso’s style, while the full, sharply modelled forms suggest that Empoli had studied the art of Giorgio Vasari. However, these sources are modified by Empoli’s greater naturalism, and the ruined hut, the simple, devout shepherds and demure little angels recall the accessible and direct religious paintings of Santi di Tito. In the ...


Mario Buhagiar

Maltese family of painters. Stefano Erardi (b 1630; d 1716) was of French extraction and would seem to have been trained in the workshop of a Mannerist artist, though much of his apprenticeship probably consisted of copying paintings in Maltese collections and studying prints after works by famous artists. This may account for his eclecticism, but it would be wrong to dismiss him as a plagiarist. His best works reveal him to have been an excellent draughtsman with a good sense of colour, who never completely renounced his Mannerist formation. His contacts with Mattia Preti broadened his artistic horizons and introduced him to Neapolitan Baroque art. His work had great popular appeal and helped to stimulate the emergence of a Maltese school of Baroque painting in the 18th century. His most prestigious commission, and one of his best works, is the Adoration of the Magi (Valletta, St John). Equally remarkable are the huge altarpiece of the ...


(b Orta di Atella or Naples, c. 1590; d Conversano, 1645).

Italian painter. He signed himself Neapolitanus and probably trained in Naples under the late Mannerist painter Ippolito Borghese (d 1627). Borghese’s influence, though lasting, was not as strong as that of Caravaggio, whose art Finoglia came to admire. His work before 1626 is exemplified by the ten lunettes representing the Founders of Religious Orders in the Sala Capitolare (1620–c. 1626) of the Certosa di S Martino, Naples, which demonstrate his accomplished blending of late Mannerist and Caravaggesque styles. The Circumcision (1626), also in the Sala Capitolare, reveals the strong influence of Battistello Caracciolo, as does Finoglia’s first important work in fresco, the decoration of the chapel of S Martino in the Certosa di S Martino with scenes from the Life of St Martin (c. 1632), which were provided to accompany Caracciolo’s altarpiece of St Martin (1622–6) already in the chapel. Caracciolo’s influence was lasting, observable later in the ...


[Finsonius, Ludovicus]

(b Bruges, c. 1580; d Amsterdam, 1617).

Flemish painter. He was the son of the painter Jacques Fynson (d before 1609) and trained in his father’s studio in Bruges; the influence of Netherlandish Mannerism is strong in his work. At some time early in the 17th century he travelled to Italy; he was certainly in Naples by 1608 and may also have previously spent some time in Rome. It is not certain whether he was a pupil of Caravaggio, but he is known to have copied many of Caravaggio’s works and to have owned at least two of his paintings, one of which was the Madonna of the Rosary (Vienna, Ksthist. Mus.), which Finson bought with Abraham Vinck (1580–1621), perhaps as early as 1607. After 1612 Finson visited Spain and then France, arriving in Marseille early in 1613. He was already a painter of considerable repute and continued to enjoy much success in Provence and to command large sums for his paintings. From Marseille he was called to Aix-en-Provence by ...