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Vitor Serrão

(b Lisbon, 1598; d Cotovia, May 11, 1644).

Portuguese painter and Jesuit priest. He was apprenticed in Madrid to Eugenio Cajés, in whose studio he became familiar with the tenebrist style characterized by sharply contrasting figures, strong gradations of chiaroscuro and naturalistically rendered background and drapery. He returned to Lisbon around 1625. In 1632 he became a Jesuit, and in 1644 he died in the Noviciado da Cotovia, renowned for his saintliness. The naturalism of his works quickly gained him fame, and he was nicknamed cabrinha (little goat) by his contemporaries because of his ‘oriental features’. An early work is the beautiful Visitation (c. 1630; Lisbon, S Mamede, Sacristy). Among his patrons and collectors were the Inquisitor General, Dom Francisco de Castro, and the Capelão-mor (royal chaplain) and future Bishop of Elvas, Dom Manuel da Cunha.

Like the work of André Reinoso, that of Domingos da Cunha clearly reflects the innovative spirit of the Portuguese painters trained at the school of Madrid. Félix da Costa Meesen noted that ‘he is a good colourist’ and a ‘great imitator of the natural’, although ‘narrative was not his strong point’. These qualities are seen in the series of scenes from the ...


Ivo Kořán

(b Prague, bapt Dec 4, 1717; d Prague, June 17, 1767).

Bohemian painter. He was the son of the painter Kristián Grund (c. 1686–1751) and brother to the painters František Karel Grund (1721–43), Petr Pavel Christian Grund (1722–84)—also a violin virtuoso—and the harpist Jan Eustach Grund. He learnt painting with his father, who released him from his apprenticeship in 1737. Subsequently he lived in Vienna and then perhaps in Germany; he probably knew his great models, Watteau, Nicolas Lancret and Francesco Guardi, only from engravings.

Grund’s work consists of a rather confused range of small pictures, embodying almost all genres in which landscapes or dwellings include figures. He painted scenes from myths, the Bible, legends and battles; he depicted love scenes, the theatre, storms at sea, visits to ruins, studios etc. Although the human figures always endow his pictures with a light touch, often there is an implicitly deeper allegorical meaning. His paintings from the 1740s are marked by a heavy Late Baroque colour scheme, in the 1750s by fragile Rococo shades; later he accomplished a smooth transition to a classicist realism. The popularity of his works in aristocratic and bourgeois circles is underlined by reproductions by ...


Netty van de Kamp

[Eberhard; Monsù Bernardo]

(b Helsingör, 1624; d Rome, 1687).

Danish painter, active in Italy. The son of a German painter working at the court of Christian IV of Denmark, he was apprenticed to the Copenhagen court painter Maarten van Steenwinckel (1595–1646) and as a master continued his training (1642–4) with Rembrandt in Amsterdam. He then opened his own studio and taught young artists until 1651, when he travelled to Italy. In Venice he obtained commissions for portraits, decorated palaces and was employed by churches and religious orders, executing works such as the Virgin with St Elia for the Carmelites in Venice and the Virgin and St Dominic for the refectory of the monastery of S Bartolomeo in Bergamo. In 1656 he arrived in Rome, where he remained until his death. During his sojourn in Italy he was converted to Catholicism.

As ‘Monsù Bernardo’ apparently never signed his works, their attribution has posed problems. Study of his work has been limited mainly to the genre pieces, though he also painted portraits and religious subjects. Some of his genre pieces have an allegorical or moralizing meaning: for example, the musical companies that he often painted can be interpreted as an allegory on the sense of hearing. His range of motifs is limited. They include women and girls with sewing on their laps, as in ...


Alfonso E. Pérez Sánchez

(b Pastrana, Guadalajara, 1581; d Madrid, 1641).

Spanish painter. He was born at the small court of the Prince of Eboli, Don Ruy Gómez de Silva. His father was Milanese and his mother of Portuguese origin. He went to Italy, probably before the end of the 16th century, and spent several years there. In Rome he was in contact with Annibale Carracci and Guido Reni and became familiar with the work of Caravaggio, which influenced him deeply. Given his father’s Milanese origin, he probably also had contact with artists in Brescia, Cremona and Milan.

By 1611 Maino had returned to Spain and was working in Toledo Cathedral. In January 1612 he was commissioned to paint the retable and the frescoes on the lower part of the choir and the presbytery (in situ) of the Dominican convent of S Pedro Mártir, Toledo, and before the work was complete, he took religious orders there on 27 July 1614...


Enrique Valdivièso

(b Seville, 1640; d ?1695–8).

Spanish painter. He was born into an aristocratic family and was educated for a military career. However, he turned to letters and painting at an early age, and in 1660 he was one of the artists who, with Murillo, founded the Academia de Pintura in Seville. In 1661 he joined the Jerusalem Order of the Knights of Malta and travelled to Malta, where he underwent religious and military training. There he met the Italian painter Mattia Preti, who was also a member of the Order; the two became friends and established a working relationship. From 1664 on Núñez de Villavicencio travelled to Italy and Spain in the service of the Order and on several occasions was able to return to Seville. He must also have passed through Madrid, as he is known to have been in contact with Charles II.

Núñez de Villavicencio’s style was formed initially in Seville, where he was strongly influenced by Murillo; while in Malta he absorbed much from Mattia Preti, and his few surviving works are strongly Italianate in style. In ...


Richard Bösel

(b Trento, Nov 30, 1642; d Vienna, Aug 31, 1709).

Italian painter, architect and stage designer. He was a brilliant quadratura painter, whose most celebrated works, such as the decoration of the church of S Ignazio in Rome, unite painting, architecture and sculpture in effects of overwhelming illusionism and are among the high-points of Baroque church art. He was a Jesuit lay brother and produced his most significant work for the Society of Jesus. This affiliation was fundamental to his conception of art and to his heightened awareness of the artist’s role as instrumental in proclaiming the faith and stimulating religious fervour. The methods he used were those of Counter-Reformation rhetoric, as represented in Ignatius Loyola’s Spirited Exercises (1548). His architectural works are eclectic, and his unconventional combination of varied sources led to bold experiments with both space and structure. His ideas were spread by his highly successful two-volume treatise, Perspectiva pictorum et architectorum (1693–1700).

He received his first artistic training in Trento, with a painter who appears to have worked in the studio of Palma Giovane. He then studied with an unidentifiable pupil of, among others, Andrea Sacchi, who would have been the first to instruct Pozzo in the art of the Roman High Baroque, and he followed this painter to Como and Milan. In Milan Pozzo joined the Society of Jesus on ...


John T. Spike

[il Cavalier Calabrese]

(b Taverna, Calabria, Feb 24, 1613; d Valletta, Malta, Jan 3, 1699).

Italian painter and draughtsman. Although he was trained and had his first success as a painter in Rome during the 1630s and 1640s, he is traditionally associated with the Neapolitan school. It was in Naples between 1653 and 1660 that he made his most lasting mark, contributing to the evolution of the exuberant late Baroque style and providing an important source of inspiration to later generations of painters, notably to Francesco Solimena. From 1661 he was based in Malta, where his most substantial undertaking was the decoration of St John’s, Valletta. Preti’s mature style is intensely dramatic and unites a Caravaggesque realism and expressive chiaroscuro with the grandeur and theatricality of Venetian High Renaissance painting.

At an early age, probably before 1630, Preti set out to join his brother Gregorio Preti [il Calabrese] (c. 1603–72), a painter who had arrived in Rome from Taverna c. 1628 and is documented at the Accademia di S Luca, Rome, between ...


Chiara Krawietz

[il Cappuccino; il Prete Genovese]

(b Genoa, 1581; d Venice, Sept 2, 1644).

Italian painter. He was one of the most influential Italian painters of the early 17th century, important to developments in both Genoa and Venice. He is known for religious works, genre scenes and portraits, and his powerful art is distinguished by rich and glowing colour and broad, energetic brushstrokes.

He studied briefly with the painter and antiquarian Cesare Corte (1550–1613/14) (Soprani) and was then sent by his mother to train with the Sienese painter Pietro Sorri (1556–1621), who was in Genoa from 1595 to 1597. In 1598 he became a Capuchin monk and entered the monastery at S Barnaba, Genoa. Here he may have made devotional paintings of saints, especially St Francis; such works as St Francis in Prayer (Genoa, Gal. Pal. Bianco), painted in dark, almost monochromatic browns, perhaps date from this time. The background is shadowy and the saint, in the foreground plane, makes a strong and direct emotional appeal. In ...


Klára Garas

(b Innsbruck, Dec 25, 1673; d Neisse [Nysa, Poland], Nov 4, 1731).

Austrian architect and painter. In 1695 he became a lay brother of the Jesuit Order in Vienna. Between 1702 and 1709 he was the pupil of Andrea Pozzo, with whom he collaborated on the interior decoration of the Liechtenstein summer palace in Vienna (1705). In 1709–10 he completed the renovation of the church of St Anne in Vienna and of the refectory in the Clementinum, a Jesuit college in Prague; both were projects that had been begun by Pozzo. Between 1712 and 1715 Tausch produced his principal work, the decoration of the former Jesuit church at Trencsén (Trenčín, Slovakia) with illusionistic perspective ceiling paintings depicting the Glorification of St Ignatius of Loyola and St Francis Xavier. Between 1713 and 1719 he produced many paintings and designs for Jesuit church interiors in Hungary, Prague and Germany (Passau). After a journey to Rome (1720), and his modification and decoration of the Jesuit church of S Ignazio at Gorizia (...


Hannes Etzlstorfer

( Lukas Leopold )

(b Kaliningrad [Königsberg], bapt Sept 27, 1630; d Lubiaź [Leubus], Aug 26, 1706).

German painter. The son of the painter Peter Willmann ( fl 1627; d 1665), he trained in the Netherlands in the early 1650s, making contact with Rembrandt and his circle. However, the element of characteristically Counter-Reformation pathos in Willmann’s work seems to derive from studying Rubens and van Dyck. Willmann’s skill as a landscape painter also derives from Dutch models. Around 1653 (or even later) Willmann tried to establish himself as an artist in Prague. However, the artistic dominance of Karel Škréta prevented him from making his mark, so he moved to Berlin, where he found employment at the court of Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg, in 1657–8. He may have returned briefly to Prague, but following his conversion to Catholicism in 1660–61, he settled finally at Lubiaź Monastery near Wrocław, where he married in 1662. From here he had a wide field of work open to him in the service of the Cistercian monasteries and the nobility of Silesia, Bohemia and Moravia over a period of four decades. He also worked for other religious orders, painting for instance an altarpiece for the Premonstratensians at Strahov Monastery in Prague....