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(b Berlin, Oct 15, 1827; d Berlin, Sept 15, 1908).

German architect, archaeologist and writer. He was one of the leading figures of Berlin’s architectural establishment in the latter half of the 19th century. On completion of his studies in 1852, he was given the prestigious post of Bauleiter at the Neues Museum in Berlin, designed by Friedrich August Stüler. He subsequently became a lecturer and in 1861 a professor of architectural history at the Bauakademie in Berlin. Many of his church buildings used medieval motifs and elements, for example the Christuskirche (1862–8) in Berlin and the Elisabethkirche (1869–72) in Wilhelmshafen. He followed Karl Bötticher in his attempts to merge medieval and classical elements, best illustrated in his design for the Thomaskirche (competition 1862; built 1865–70), Berlin. There, Adler used Gothic structural devices embellished with rich Renaissance detail, a tendency that was also present in many of the entries for the Berlin Cathedral competition (...


C. Hobey-Hamsher

(fl late 5th century bc).

Greek painter. He was the son of Eudemos and came originally from Samos, but worked in Athens; none of his work survives. He was said to be self-taught. Vitruvius (On Architecture VII.praef.11) claimed that Agatharchos was the first artist to paint a stage set on wooden panels. This was for a tragedy by Aeschylus (525/4–456 bc), although it may have been a revival presented later in the 5th century bc. Vitruvius added that he wrote a commentary discussing the theoretical basis of his painted scenery and that the philosophers Demokritos (late 5th century bc) and Anaxagoras (c. 500–428 bc) followed him in exploring theories of perspective. It is unlikely that Agatharchos organized his compositions around a single vanishing point. More probably, individual objects and buildings or groups of buildings were depicted receding towards separate vanishing points. If Agatharchos’ experiments in perspective were confined to stage scenery, they would have been limited to architectural backgrounds, before which the actor moved. Aristotle (...


Greek, 19th century, male.

Born 1852, in Athens; died 1878.

Painter. Waterscapes, seascapes.

A friend of the architect H.C. Hansen, Altamura visited Copenhagen where he attended the fine arts academy from 1873 to 1876. He was primarily a painter of seascapes.

Copenhagen, 3 June 1976...


Margaret Lyttleton

(fl late 2nd century bc–mid-1st).

Greek architect and astronomer. He is associated with a single building, the Tower of the Winds (Horologion) on the edge of the Roman agora in Athens, of which he was named the architect by Vitruvius (On Architecture I.vi.4). This elegant and ingenious small marble octagonal building was designed externally as a monumental sundial and weather-vane, with a representation of each of the eight winds carved on the sides of the octagon; at the apex of the roof was a bronze Triton that acted as a weathercock. The interior of the building contained a complicated waterclock; apart from the Triton and the clock, the building is well preserved. Andronikos’ home town of Kyrrhos appears to be that in Macedonia, rather than the town of the same name in Syria, because a sundial from the island of Tenos carries an epigram in honour of its maker, who is named as Andronikos of Kyrrhos in Macedonia, son of Hermias, and compares him with the famous Hellenistic astronomer Aratos of Soli in Cilicia (...


4th century, male.


Ancient Greek.

Pliny Antenorides was, with Euphranor, a follower of Aristides - though not Aristides the famous painter of the time of Alexander but probably the grandfather of the latter and an architect, sculptor and painter. Nothing is known of the works of Antenorides....


T. F. C. Blagg

(b Damascus; d Rome, c. ad 125).

Roman architect. His first known work, and possibly his training, was in military engineering. He constructed the 1135-m-long bridge across the Danube (nr Turnu Severin, Romania) in ad 103–5, between Trajan’s two Dacian campaigns. It had a timber superstructure and arches on huge masonry piers and is represented on Trajan’s Column in Rome. Apollodorus’ treatise on the bridge remains untraced. His other major achievements were in Rome. Dio (LXIX.iv.1) recorded that he built the Baths and Forum of Trajan and an odeum. Substantial remains of the first two survive. The forum, built in ad 107–13 and famous in antiquity for its magnificence, was a boldly conceived project that involved the removal of part of the Quirinal Hill (see Rome, §V, 2). Apollodoros was probably also architect of the adjacent Markets of Trajan, since its masterly adaptation to its site seems integral with the forum’s design (c....


5th century, male.

Active in Attica in the second half of the 5th century BC.

Stone worker, sculptor (?).

Ancient Greek.

Archedemus was involved with the transformation of one of the largest natural grottoes to the south of Mount Hymettus (near the modern village of Vari) into a sanctuary dedicated to Pan, the Nymphs and the Charites (the Graces). At the foot of the central wall of the grotto, Archedemus has depicted himself (?) in his working clothes, with his pointed hammer and set square....


Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time.

Astrology developed into a scientific branch of learning in ancient Greece, but because of the opposition of the Church Fathers it was transmitted to early medieval Europe in only fragmentary form in technically unsophisticated textbooks and popular divinatory genres. Literary and scientific texts provided more general ideas about the nature and attributes of the planets which were influential on later iconography. The first significant astrological images appear in 11th-century illustrated astronomical texts (e.g. London, BL, Cotton MS. Tiberius BV), which were acquired and produced by monasteries to aid with time-keeping and the construction of the Christian calendar....


6th century, male.

Active during the second half of the 6th century BC.

Born in Magnesia ad Maeandrum.

Sculptor, architect.

Ancient Greek.

Bathycles, like many other Ionians in Asia, moved westwards under the threat from the Medes as first Lydia and then the coastal towns fell. He came eventually to work in Greece. Around 530 BC, he designed the vast decorative construction known as the ...


2nd century, male.

Born in Laconia.

Sculptor, architect (?).

Ancient Greek.

Batrachus, with his compatriot Sauras, is mentioned by Pliny in his discussions of sculptors in marble ( Natural History 36. 42) as the builder of the temples of Jupiter Stator and Juno Regina. According to Pliny, because the two artists' names did not feature in the act of consecration, they signed their work by carving 'in columnarum spiris' (on a twisted column) a frog (batrachus) and a lizard (saurus). Quite apart from the matter of their curious (but not impossible) names, the anecdote still seems unlikely to be true. Firstly, it does not appear to have been the custom in the 2nd century BC to mark the consecration of temples with an inscription. Secondly, we know from Vitruvius the name of the architect who built the temple of Jupiter Stator: the Cypriot Hermodorus of Salamis. If they ever existed, Batrachus and Sauras were probably just ordinary decorative sculptors....