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American, 20th century, female.

Born 14 June 1904, in New York City; died 27 August 1971, in Darien, Connecticut.

Photographer, photojournalist. Social documentary, advertisements, landscapes, genre scenes.

Modernism.

Margaret Bourke-White received her first training in photography at the Clarence White School of Photography in 1922, while a student at Columbia University. Bourke-White was intrigued by the American industrial landscape, and her first important industrial series featured the Otis Steel Mills near Cleveland. At this time Bourke-White developed her hallmark style, using the cinema trick of magnesium flares to flood the dark factory floor with bright light. Her commercial images similarly used multiple light sources and crisp focus to highlight repeated forms and shapes....

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born 12 April 1883, in Portland, Oregon; died 23 June 1976 in San Francisco, California.

Photographer. Portraits, figures, nudes, still-life, landscapes.

Pictoralism, Modernism. Group f/64.

With the aim of becoming a photographer, Cunningham majored in chemistry at the University of Washington, Seattle. To pay her tuition she photographed specimens for the botany department, establishing a life-long love of floral subject matter. After completing her degree, she worked in the photography studio of Edward S. Curtis (...

Article

Deborah Cullen

[MoMA] (New York)

The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) was founded in 1929 by patrons Lillie P(lummer) Bliss, Cornelius J. Sullivan and Rockefeller family §(1) to establish an institution devoted to modern art. Over the next ten years the Museum moved three times and in 1939 settled in the Early Modern style building (1938–9) designed by Philip S. Goodwin and Edward Durell Stone that it still occupies at 11 West 53 Street. Subsequent renovations and expansions occurred in the 1950s and 1960s by Philip Johnson, in 1984 by Cesar Pelli and in 2002–4 by Yoshirō Taniguchi (b 1937). MoMA QNS, the temporary headquarters during this project, was subsequently used to provide art storage. In 2000, MoMA and the contemporary art space, P.S.1, Long Island City, Queens, announced their affiliation. Recent projects are shown at P.S.1 in Queens in a renovated public school building.

According to founding director, Alfred H(amilton) Barr...

Article

Barbara L. Michaels

Group of mainly American Pictorialist photographers founded by Alfred Stieglitz in New York in 1902, with the aim of advancing photography as a fine art. Stieglitz, who chose the organization’s name partly to reflect the Modernism of European artistic Secession movements, remained its guiding spirit. Other leading members included Alvin Langdon Coburn, Gertrude Käsebier, Edward J(ean) Steichen and Clarence H(udson) White. The Secession also exhibited and published work by Europeans, for example Robert Demachy, Frederick H. Evans, Heinrich Kühn and Baron Adolf de Meyer, who shared the Americans’ attitude that photography was a valid medium of artistic expression (see Pictorial photography).

All participants placed great emphasis on fine photographic printing. Their gum bichromate or platinum prints often emulated paint, pastel or other media, particularly in their use of soft focus, emphasis on composition and texture, and adoption of traditional academic subject-matter; in addition graphic signatures or monograms were often used. The Secession’s shifting aesthetic concerns are well documented in the elegant magazine ...

Article

W. Jackson Rushing

(William IV)

(b Breckenridge, MN, Oct 6, 1937; d Scottsdale, AZ, Feb 10, 2005).

American painter, printmaker and photographer. He studied art in high school under Oscar Howe (b 1915), the Sioux modernist painter, and later with Wayne Thiebaud at Sacramento City College, CA (1957–8). After participating in the Southwest Indian Art Project sponsored by the Rockefeller Foundation in 1961, Scholder acknowledged his Native American heritage and taught at the Institute of American Indian Art in Santa Fe (1964–9). In 1967 he achieved recognition for his Indian Series: fluid, painterly, semi-abstract portraits that challenged both the romantic stereotype of the Noble Savage and the strictures of traditional Native American painting. These sensuously coloured, but troubling images, such as Indian No. 1 (1967; Washington, DC, priv. col., see Taylor and others, 1982, p. 54) are subjected to violent Expressionist distortions resulting from rapid, bravura brushwork.

From 1970 Scholder made lithographs, for example the Indians Forever Suite (1970–71...

Article

American, 19th–20th century, male.

Born 1 January 1864, in Hoboken, New Jersey; died 13 July 1946, in New York City.

Photographer, writer, editor, gallery owner, collector. Cityscapes, landscapes, portraits.

Pictorialism, Modernism. The Linked Ring, Photo-Secession

Alfred Stieglitz was the eldest of six children and attended New York schools before moving to Germany in 1881. There Stieglitz studied photography with photo-chemist Hermann Vogel beginning in 1883. Returning to New York in 1890, Stieglitz joined the Society of Amateur Photographers and became increasingly involved with Pictorialism. Often characterized by a soft-focus, painterly quality, the Pictorialist aesthetic appears in his pictures from this period, such as ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 24 March 1886, in Highland Park, Illinois; died 1 January 1958, in Carmel, California.

Photographer. Portraits, figures, nudes, still-lifes, landscapes, architectural subjects.

Pictorialism, Modernism.

Group f/64.

Edward Weston began as an itinerant portrait photographer in California in 1906, next working in a portrait studio and eventually setting up his own studio in Tropico, Los Angeles, in 1911. During this early period he worked in a Pictorialist mode, and in addition to producing sentimental images, such as ...