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Junghee Lee

Korean dynasty that ruled the Korean peninsula from 1392 to 1910. The founder of the dynasty, Yi Sŏng-gye, posthumously known as King T’aejo (reg 1392–8), established Neo-Confucianism as the official ideology, encouraging a modest and practical lifestyle. Thus the patronage of extravagant art was discouraged, and the status of the artist was reduced. Buddhism was often zealously suppressed but remained the private religion of the palace women, the common people and even some kings. ...


Ju-Hsi Chou

Chinese painter, calligrapher, seal-carver, collector and poet. The son of a minor official in charge of local education, Gao developed an interest in poetry, painting and seal-carving in his early youth, when he also began to collect old seals and inkstones. The great poet Wang Shizhen took a liking to him and left instructions before his death that Gao be admitted into the ranks of his disciples. A relative of the poet, ...


Tadashi Kobayashi

(b Osaka, 1736; d Osaka, 1802). Japanese collector, scholar, poet, painter and calligrapher. As a boy he undertook the study of medicinal herbs at the apothecary’s shop owned by his father and other relatives. According to tradition he began to have an interest in art when he was about five or six and studied with the Kanō-school master ...


An Qi  

Laura Rivkin

(bTianjin, Shandong Province, 1683; d after 1742). Chinese art collector and connoisseur. Son of a wealthy salt merchant of Korean descent who was a bannerman (administrative official) in the house of the powerful Manchu statesman Mingzhu, he is best known for his collection of Chinese paintings and calligraphy. He used the family wealth to acquire works by old masters and to commission works by contemporary artists, assembling one of the finest of the collections of Chinese paintings of the Qing dynasty (...


Elizabeth F. Bennett

(b Beijing, 26 Sept 1711; reg 1736–96; d 7 Feb 1799). Chinese emperor, collector and artist. The name Qianlong is, in fact, an imperial reign title, but it is used for the emperor more generally than the alternative, Emperor Gaozong.

The Qianlong emperor, fourth emperor of the Qing dynasty (...


Carol Michaelson

Last Chinese dynasty, founded by the Manchus, dating to 1644–1911. The Manchu emperors early became sinicized and patronized all forms of Chinese art and culture. Until the 19th century there was relative prosperity and peace under the Qing. Population and trade increased on an unprecedented scale, and expansion of territory made China the richest and largest state in the world. The reign periods of the Kangxi (...