French term for openwork, used in the decorative arts principally with reference to metalwork, bookbinding and heraldry. In metalwork, it denotes the piercing or perforation of sheet metal, a practice found as early as the ancient Egyptian period. In bookbinding, the term ajouré binding refers to a style that emerged in late 15th-century Venice in which bindings were embellished with pierced or translucent patterns, typically open designs of foliage. In heraldry, an ...
(b Moscow, May 7, 1903; d Paris, Jan 25, 1988).
Lithuanian art historian, scholar of folklore and Egyptology, and diplomat of Russian birth. Son of the celebrated Lithuanian Symbolist poet of the same name, Jurgis Baltrušaitis II studied under Henri(-Joseph) Focillon at the Sorbonne and earned the PhD in 1931. The concerns of his mentor are evident in La stylistique ornementale dans la sculpture romane (1931), which reprises and extends arguments for the ‘law of the frame’ in Romanesque sculpture. Accordingly, the shapes of architectural members, such as capitals and tympana, determined the articulation of sculptural forms. This theory could account for the genesis of a wide array of monumental carvings, from foliate capitals to narrative reliefs, but ultimately it had a rather limited impact on the field of Romanesque sculptural studies. In a scathing critique, Schapiro argued that Baltrušaitis’s book—and by implication Focillon’s methods—robbed Romanesque sculptors of agency and neglected the religious and expressive meanings of this art form....
Egyptian, 20th century, female.
Active in Lebanon.
Born 1945, in Alexandria.
Painter, graphic designer, illustrator. Figure compositions, figures.
Mouna Bassili Sehnaoui studied for two years at the American University in Beirut, Lebanon, and completed her higher education at the University of Arizona in Tucson where she was awarded a diploma in graphic art and painting. She also won the first prize at the university's exhibition of students' works in ...
Tunisian, 20th – 21st century, male.
Born 16 January 1947, in Tunis.
Illustrator, caricaturist, painter.
Belkhamsa Chedli spent two brief periods at the schools of fine art in Tunis and Paris. He works mostly for Tunisian newspapers and magazines. In 1983, he was awarded first prize for his cartoons by the association of Tunisian journalists. As well as his work as a cartoonist, he has also painted acrylics on canvas, works that display considerable care, precision and elegance. The themes of these paintings are taken from the world of fantasy, and are painted in cartoon style....
Algerian, 20th century, male.
Active in France since 1953.
Born 1931, in Mestghanem.
Painter, engraver, illustrator, painter (gouache), watercolourist. Designs for tapestries.
Abdallah Benanteur began his artistic studies at the school of fine art in Oran, completing them at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière in Paris. He settled in Paris in 1953. From 1972 to 1976, he taught in the architecture department of the École des Beaux-Arts and at the École des Arts Décoratifs in Paris....
Egyptian, 20th century, male.
Born 1940, in Cairo.
Painter, watercolourist, illustrator, decorative artist. Decorative motifs. Stage costumes and sets, designs for jewellery.
A pupil at the Académie Julian, the École des Arts Decoratifs and the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, Georges Doche went on to show his work in several public exhibitions and, in particular, at the Salon des Artistes Indépendants in Paris, as well as at several private galleries in Geneva, Tokyo and London. He had a number of solo exhibitions, including in Paris (...
Tunisian, 20th century, male.
Active also active in France.
Born 1918, in Jakarta, Indonesia.
Painter, illustrator, draughtsman. Cartoon films.
Hatem El Mekki was born in Indonesia but moved to Tunisia in 1924. He started to exhibit his works at the Salon Tunisien in 1934. In ...
Moroccan, 20th – 21st century, female.
Active in France.
Born 1950, in Casablanca.
Painter, sculptor, sculptor of assemblages, draughtswoman, illustrator.
Sylvia Elharar-Lemberg studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris and at the art teachers training college in Tel Aviv. Her paintings and drawings create the effect of transparency and obliteration, often starting from the square design of a tetragram. She also creates assemblages, such as mysterious grills, iron rods placed alongside labels and photographic plates. Sylvia Elharar-Lemberg has shown at group exhibitions in France since ...
Algerian, 20th century, female.
Born in Bordj-Bou-Arreridj.
Painter, illustrator. Narrative scenes.
Aïcha Haddad was a pupil at the school of fine arts in Algiers and later taught design. She is a member of the national union of fine arts and the general union of Arab painters. She has participated in many group exhibitions since ...
Algerian, 20th – 21st century, male.
Active in Belgium from 1979, naturalised in 1990.
Born 22 April 1952, in Kabylia (Bejaïa).
Painter, illustrator, musician. Local scenes.
Born in the Kabylia region in Algeria, Boubeker was also a storyteller and singer. He paints the everyday life of shepherds, camel herders, women going about their work in the home and garden, creating compositions full of narrative detail with a feel of childlike poetry. Hamsi began exhibiting his paintings in ...