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Marianne Saabye

(bapt Copenhagen, May 16, 1726; d Copenhagen, July 8, 1776).

Danish painter. Although he was mentioned in the court account-books as early as 1743, his first known painting dates from 1750. From then until 1756 he was active as one of the most important portrait painters of the Danish Rococo. His colouristic style and impasto technique were strongly influenced by the Swedish painter Carl Gustaf Pilo. The double portrait of the Court Jeweller C. F. Fabritius and his Wife (1752; Copenhagen, Stat. Mus. Kst) and the full-length Frederik V (1756; priv. col., see A. Russell, ed.: Danske slotte og herregårde [Danish palaces and manor houses] (Copenhagen, 2/1963–8), iv, p. 385) are among his masterpieces. An important collection of portraits by Als from this period is housed in the Nationalhistoriske Museum på Frederiksborg, Hillerød.

In 1755 Als was the first major gold medal winner at the newly founded Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi in Copenhagen, and the next year he began a six-year study trip to Italy and France. In Rome (...


Wolfgang Holler

(b c. 1685; d Madrid, Aug 21, 1752).

Italian painter and etcher, active also in Germany, England and Spain. He was a pioneer of the Venetian Rococo, and his peripatetic career fostered the development of an international decorative style. His oeuvre includes decorative frescoes for churches and palaces, history and mythological paintings and a few etchings. Many of his works were reproduced in prints, and these served as models for tapestries and for the decoration of clocks, wardrobes and porcelain.

Neither the place nor date of Amigoni’s birth is known, although it is likely that his parents were Venetian. He was probably taught by Antonio Bellucci and is first recorded in the Venetian painters’ guild, the Fraglia, in 1711. Amigoni’s one documented work of this early Venetian period (Zanetti), SS Andrew and Catherine (Venice, S Stae), was probably painted shortly before this date. His international career began in southern Germany, where his presence is recorded from about 1715 to 1 July 1729...


(b Porto, nr Milan, 1701; d Triefenstein, Franconia, 1785–6).

Italian painter, active in Germany. As a youth he assimilated the decorative traditions of Lombard painting and was deeply influenced by Venetian artists, chiefly Giambattista Tiepolo. He probably left Italy as a young man, travelling to Bavaria, where he was attracted to the art of Carlo Innocenzo Carlone, and then, perhaps between 1720 and 1730, to that of Jacopo Amigoni. Appiani’s earliest confirmed works are four preparatory studies (three pairs of Classical figures and the Parnassus, all c. 1743; priv. col., see Zubeck, figs 1–4) for frescoes in the castle (destr. 1793) at Saarbrücken. From 1745 he lived in Mainz, where he became the foremost court painter, and between 1748 and 1751 he executed frescoes of sacred subjects in churches in Lindau and Oberdorf. His two most notable surviving early fresco cycles are that in the refectory of the former Premonstratensian monastery of SS Peter and Paul, Obermarchtal (including the ...


G. Komelova


(b St Petersburg, 1729; d Moscow, 1802).

Russian painter and teacher. He came from a family of serfs, belonging to the Counts Sheremetev, that produced several painters and architects. In about 1746–7 he was a pupil of Georg Christoph Grooth (1716–49), who painted portraits of the Sheremetev family. With Grooth, Argunov worked on the decoration of the court church at Tsarskoye Selo (now Pushkin). A full-length icon of St John of Damascus (1749; Pushkin, Pal.–Mus.), in Rococo style, is distinguished by its secular, decorative character. The Dying Cleopatra (1750; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.) is typical of Rococo decorative painting of the mid-18th century, with its striking combination of light, soft tones. Argunov subsequently painted in a quite different style, mainly producing portraits, of which about 60 are known. Among the first of these are pendant portraits of Ivan Lobanov-Rostovsky and his wife (1750 and 1754; St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.), in which the sitters are idealized, as in ceremonial court portraits. The colour schemes of the two portraits are complementary, a device Argunov was to favour, and the feel of materials is admirably rendered. A certain flatness and stiffness in the figures recalls the old tradition of ...


Myriam A. Ribeiro de Oliveira

(b Mariana, Minas Gerais, bapt Oct 18, 1762; d Mariana, Feb 2, 1830).

Brazilian painter. He was the most important painter active in the province of Minas Gerais during the Colonial period. He learnt his craft in the workshop with other artists and from such theoretical treatises as Andrea Pozzo’s Perspectivae pictorum atque architectorum (1693–1700) and such technical manuals as the Segredos necessarios para os officcios, artes e manufaturas (Lisbon, 1794), which was recorded in the inventory of his possessions. He was also strongly influenced by engravings of religious subjects in bibles and missals. He had a great influence on the development of religious painting in the region, especially through his numerous pupils and followers, who until the middle of the 19th century continued to make use of his compositional methods, particularly in the perspective ceilings of churches. Often referred to in documents as ‘professor de pintura’, in 1818 he unsuccessfully petitioned for official permission to found an art school in his native city. He left an extensive body of work, which includes decorative painting of architecture, single pictures, and the painting of religious statues (gilding and flesh-colouring). Especially famous are the vast perspective paintings such as the ...


Michelle Lespes


(b Douai, Jan 12, 1702; d Paris, March 4, 1766).

French painter and collector . His father, Jean-Baptiste Havet, a doctor of Armenian origin, died when Aved was a child. He was brought up in Amsterdam by his step-father, a captain in the Dutch Guards. At 16 he is said to have become a pedlar or ‘camelot’ (hence the nickname given to him by his French acquaintances) travelling through the Netherlands, drawing portraits at fairs. In 1721, after spending short periods in the Amsterdam studios of the French engraver Bernard Picart and of the draughtsman François Boitard (1652–1722), he left the Netherlands to work in the Paris studio of the fashionable portrait painter Alexis-Simon Belle. At this time he met other notable painters including Carle Vanloo and the portrait painters Maurice-Quentin de La Tour, Jean-Baptiste Perroneau and Jean-Etienne Liotard. He also formed a deep and lasting friendship with Jean-Siméon Chardin, with whom he may have collaborated on occasion; they used similar techniques, and he may have encouraged Chardin to turn from still-life painting to figure painting in the 1730s....


Josef Strasser

(b Sigmaringen, Nov 28, 1712; d Jan 3, 1792).

German painter . He probably trained with his stepfather, the painter Johann Joseph Veseer, and later with Franz Joseph Spiegler. In 1735 he went to Vienna, where he matriculated from the Akademie der Bildenden Künste. He possibly studied under Paul Troger and then spent some time in Augsburg. After qualifying as a master painter, von Aw settled c. 1740 in Sigmaringen, where he also held public office, being twice elected burgomaster; later he ran an inn.

Von Aw’s early frescoes and altarpieces with their gentle, bright colours and their lively compositions belong to the tradition of south German Rococo painting. He often borrowed either single figures or even whole groups of figures from other artists; thus when he painted the interior of the castle church of the Holy Trinity at Haigerloch (1748–51) he used engravings after Carlo Carlone, Johann Georg Bergmüller and Matthäus Günther; for the ceiling frescoes (...


Ugo Ruggeri

(b Naples, 1728; d Naples, 1819).

Italian painter . His art derives from that of his teacher in Naples, Francesco de Mura, but he developed a freer and more decorative manner, influenced by Corrado Giaquinto and by the broken flickering touch of Giacomo del Pò. His early period, when he collaborated with de Mura, is represented by the ceiling painting Macro Caring for a Wounded Warrior (1750; Naples, Ospedale degli Incurabili), the Last Supper (1764; Bitonto Cathedral), derived from a prototype of de Mura’s Holy Family (version, 1775; Gravina Cathedral), and the Virgin Appearing to Pius V and Don Giovanni of Austria (1778; Naples, S Giacomo degli Spagnoli). This last work, however, is already lighter and freer than the earlier paintings, and these qualities are further developed in the ceiling painting of the Apotheosis of Ferdinand IV of Naples and Maria Carolina of Austria (1781; Naples, Pal. Regi Studi, Library). A bozzetto for this work (Cleveland, OH, Mus. A.) was formerly attributed to Giaquinto, not surprisingly, in view of the two artists’ stylistic affinity. The translucent colour and painterly refinement of the ...


Emma Barker

(b Paris, Oct 17, 1723; d Paris, Dec 15, 1769).

French painter. A pupil of François Boucher, whose younger daughter he married in 1758, he specialized in miniatures painted in gouache, which he first exhibited at the Salon of 1761. He was received (reçu) as a member of the Académie Royale in 1763 with a small gouache of a historical subject, Phryne Accused of Impiety before the Areopagite (Paris, Louvre), and he later painted illustrations of biblical episodes. However, he made his name as a painter of libertine scenes in contemporary settings, which he exhibited regularly at the Salon from 1763 until 1769. Some of his work is directly inspired by Boucher’s scenes of pastoral love, but the ostensibly moral themes and careful attention to detail of such paintings as the Modest Model (exh. Salon 1769; Washington, DC, N.G.A.) demonstrate that he was also influenced by Jean-Baptiste Greuze. His pictures were condemned for their immorality, both by the Archbishop of Paris, who in ...


(b in or near Kufstein, Tyrol, ?June 16, 1712; d Augsburg, before Sept 7, 1761).

German draughtsman and painter. Kilian, his earliest biographer, stated that after training as a blacksmith with his father, he learnt the art of glass painting in Salzburg. Following travels through Austria, Hungary and Italy, Baumgartner was authorized in late 1733 to live in Augsburg, on condition that he only worked as a glass painter.

Only a few examples of Baumgartner’s own glass paintings have survived; however, he must have meanwhile worked intensively on drawings for copperplate engraving. There are hundreds of these drawings; they were made with extreme care, often on tinted paper and often on a very large scale, for publishers in Augsburg such as Klauber, Engelbrecht and Kilian. Designs in oil on canvas for engravings, such as Moses Ordering the Killing of the Midianite Women (1760; Augsburg, Schaezlerpal.), were a particular speciality of Baumgartner. By far the largest series numerically is for a calendar of saints, the ...