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Patrick Conner

English painter. Although long rumoured to be Irish, Chinnery was brought up in London, where he showed a precocious talent as a portrait painter in the traditions of Romney and Cosway. His grandfather, the calligrapher William Chinnery sr, was the author of Writing and Drawing Made Easy, Amusing and Instructive...

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Nadia Tscherny

English painter. He first attended classes at William Shipley’s Academy in the Strand, London, and from 1758 to 1765 was apprenticed to Richard Wilson (about whom he published a short biographical essay in 1790). Hodges followed Wilson’s classical landscape style periodically throughout his career, but, particularly during his travels, he also occasionally abandoned it in favour of freer handling, bolder juxtapositions of colour and a more empirical response to the natural world....

Article

Hugh Belsey

English painter, active in India. Following a varied training at Shipley’s, St Martin’s Lane, and the Duke of Richmond’s Academies, he painted portraits, reminiscent of Reynolds’s, in Oxford and the Midlands. His most ambitious portrait, stylistically similar to the work of Francis Cotes, is Lady Frances Harpur and her Son Henry...

Article

Manaku  

B. N. Goswamy

Indian painter, elder son of the painter Pandit Seu and brother of Nainsukh. Manaku figures in the controversial colophon of a famous Gīta Govinda series of 1730. Although no place name is given in the colophon, it is more than likely that Manaku continued to work near his father in the small but lively principality of Guler. In ...

Article

B. N. Goswamy

Indian painter. He was the younger son of Pandit Seu. He remains, justly perhaps, the Pahari painter about whom most is known. Growing up in an atmosphere of experimentation and change, Nainsukh seems to have matured early and taken enthusiastically to the fluent naturalism of Mughal painting that came to the hill region at this time. Moving much further in this direction than did his father or elder brother, ...

Article

Purkhu  

B. N. Goswamy

Indian painter. Often associated with the court of Kangra and its most famous ruler, Maharaja Sansar Chand (reg 1775–1823), he seems to have shifted his family’s residence from Kangra to the tiny village of Samloti when the Maharaja was forced to surrender the town and fort of Kangra to the Sikhs in ...

Article

B. N. Goswamy

Indian painter. He was the father of the painters Manaku and Nainsukh. He was probably attached to the court of Raja Dilip Singh (reg c. 1695–1741) of Guler, although no work signed by him, or securely dated, is known. However, inscriptional evidence marks him out as the head of one of the most important families of painters in the Pahari region. Firmly rooted in the tradition of painting as practised in his family, Pandit Seu seems to have travelled outside the hills or at least to have come into active, fruitful contact with the painters from the plains working in the naturalistic, late Mughal manner. To this work he responded slowly and carefully from the middle of his career. The honorific term Pandit, often attached to his name and occurring even on a portrait sketch of his that has survived, suggests that the family to which he belonged came from Brahmin stock but, having professionally taken to painting, eventually fell from caste and merged in the carpenter–painter caste groups generally called ...

Article

Robert L. Hardgrave jr

Flemish printmaker and painter. He pursued his early career in Europe as a marine painter, but political unrest and his own insecure position led him to seek his fortune in India. Residing in Calcutta from 1791 to 1804, Solvyns undertook the work for which he is best known, ...

Article

Geoffrey Ashton and Lin Barton

German painter, active in England. Born Johannes Josephus Zauffaly, he was the son of Anton Franz Zauffaly (1699–1771), Court Cabinetmaker and Architect in Regensburg to Alexander Ferdinand, Prince of Thurn and Taxis. After an apprenticeship in Regensburg under the painter and engraver Martin Speer (...