1-10 of 27 results  for:

  • Painting and Drawing x
  • Eighteenth-Century Art x
  • Art History and Theory x
  • Nineteenth-Century Art x
Clear all

Article

Pilar Benito

(b Barcelona, 1755; d Barcelona, Sept 7, 1822).

Spanish writer and painter. He was a member of the Real Escuela de la Junta de Comercio in Barcelona, where he was primarily active in a political capacity rather than as an artist and professor in its Escuela de Nobles Artes. He was expelled from the Junta in 1814 because he had taken the oath of loyalty to the usurper King Joseph Bonaparte, and as a result of accusations of favouring the French he spent his last years in total isolation from public life. His work as a writer on art is of considerable interest. He strongly defended French Neo-classicism and, in particular, the artists François Gérard and Jacques-Louis David. In a lecture he gave to the Junta de Comercio in 1810 he proclaimed the absolute validity of academic classicism, and this belief also pervades such manuscript pamphlets as the Discurso sobre la enseñanza del dibujo, Máximas generales para la pintura...

Article

Charles R. Morscheck jr

(b Milan, 1791; d Milan, March 28, 1872).

Italian painter and art historian. He was trained as a painter in the Neo-classical school of Giuseppe Bossi, and by Vincenzo Camuccini and Pietro Benvenuti. He was the author of Notizie sulla vita…e degli Sforza, the first great history of Milanese art of the 14th to the 16th century, which largely established the canon of early Milanese artists. Calvi’s book was founded on his perceptive connoisseurship of painting and sculpture, and a good understanding of secondary literature. He made a thorough, intelligent use of primary sources including lapidary inscriptions, documents from the archives of Milan and Pavia, and also the then unpublished manuscript (compiled c. 1775) of Antonio Francesco Albuzzi. This work consisted of a collection of notes on the lives of Milanese artists, its author being the first secretary of the Accademia Braidense, where Giuseppe Bossi taught. Both Bossi and Calvi possessed copies of Albuzzi’s manuscript.

Notizie sulla vita e sulle opere dei principali architetti, scultori e pittori che fiorirono in Milano durante il governo dei Visconti e degli Sforza...

Article

[il Sordino]

(b Bologna, Feb 23, 1740; d Bologna, May 5, 1815).

Italian painter, biographer, draughtsman and engraver. He was a pupil of Giuseppe Varotti (1715–80). While a student at the Accademia Clementina, Bologna, he received two awards, including the Premio Marsili for the Sacrifice of Noah (1758; Bologna, Accad. B.A. & Liceo A.). He pursued literary interests throughout his life and became a member of the avant-garde Accademia Letteraria degli ‘Ingomiti’ in Bologna in 1763. His early paintings, notably the St Francis de Sales (1764; Bologna, Ospizio dei Preti), continue the strict classical strain within the Bolognese figurative tradition; they show the influences of Ercole Graziani, Marc Antonio Franceschini and Donato Creti. Calvi primarily painted sacred subjects, receiving numerous, mainly local, commissions. From about 1770 onwards many pictures, including his superb Self-portrait (1770; Bologna, Pin. N.), became increasingly austere and Raphaelesque in both style and design, anticipating 19th-century Bolognese Neo-classicism. In 1766 he frescoed an Assumption of the Virgin...

Article

Kōzō Sasaki

[Tanomura Kōzō; Chikuden; Chikuden Rōho; Chikuden Sonmin; Kujō Senshi]

(b Takeda, Bungo Prov. [now Ōita Prefect.], Kyushu, 1777; d Osaka, 1835).

Japanese poet, painter and theorist. He was born into a family of physicians in service to the Oka clan of Bungo Province. He first studied medicine, but later became an instructor in Confucian studies at the clan school, the Yūgakukan. In 1801–2 Chikuden studied the verse of China’s Song period (960–1279) in Edo (now Tokyo). During this time he was also painting landscapes in the style of Dong Qichang, a painter of the Ming period (1368–1644). From 1805 to 1807 he continued his literary training in Kyoto, where he befriended Uragami Gyokudō and Okada Beisanjin, who were exponents of literati painting (Bunjinga or Nanga; see Japan §VI 4., (vi), (d)), and from this time he was determined to establish himself as a literati poet and painter.

Chikuden continued painting after his arrival in Kyoto, and his style became more experimental as a result of his contact both with Japanese painters who copied Chinese painting and woodblock-printed books and with original works by Chinese artists. He executed portraits of beautiful women (...

Article

Valeria Farinati

(Francesco)

(b Ferrara, 26 Nov 1767; d Venice, 5 March 1834). Italian critic, art historian, theorist, bibliophile and painter. He was educated at the Collegio dei Nobili in Modena (1776–85). From 1788 to 1790 he lived in Rome, where he was admitted to the Società dell’Arcadia in 1788, and became interested in ancient ruins and contemporary artists (particularly Anton Raphael Mengs) as well as in the theories of Francesco Milizia. After 1807 he abandoned a stormy political career, and, having settled in Venice, devoted himself to scholarship and painting. In 1808 he published his treatise on aesthetics, Del bello, in which he laid out the principal tenets of his Enlightenment and Neo-classical aesthetics. He upheld the important role played by philosophy in education and in the practice of art, championed the cause of progress in art, and dealt with the concepts of ‘absolute beauty’, ‘relative beauty’, ‘ideal beauty’, ‘grace or grazia’, and ‘the sublime’. From ...

Article

[Nino]

(b Rome, Oct 15, 1826; d Pisa, Jan 31, 1903).

Italian painter and critic. He was taught by one of the leading Neo-classical painters in Rome, Vincenzo Camuccini, from 1843 to 1847. He also studied under Francesco Podesti and Francesco Coghetti at the Accademia di S Luca, Rome. These painters instilled in Costa the basic academic techniques, in particular that of painting a scene or figure in mezza macchia, or half-tones, which he was to apply to great effect in his landscape paintings. In 1848 Costa joined Giuseppe Garibaldi’s Legione Romane; after the fall of the Roman Republic in 1849 he took refuge from the papal police in the Campagna, outside Rome. Between 1849 and 1859 Costa lived and worked in this region and met several foreign artists, including the Swiss painter Emile François David (1824–91) and the English painter Charles Coleman (1807–74), who encouraged his interest in landscape painting; the latter introduced him to Frederic Leighton and George Heming Mason, and they became lifelong friends. Costa recalled these years and described his working practices in his memoirs, ...

Article

E. D. Lilley

(b Reims, Oct 25, 1761; d Paris, Oct 25, 1833).

French writer and painter. He trained with the landscape painter Pierre-Henri de Valenciennes and between 1793 and 1800 exhibited at the Salon such works as Moonlight on the Seashore (1793) and Landscape with Houses (1795). Personal circumstances forced him to abandon painting for government service, but he retained a wide range of cultural interests. His Théorie du paysage and Histoire de l’art du paysage are among a number of early 19th-century treatises that reflected and influenced a change towards a more naturalistic depiction of landscape. The Théorie follows Valenciennes’s seminal Eléments de perspective pratique (Paris, 1799–1800) in insisting on the necessity of studying from nature, although it pays lip-service to the traditional academic hierarchy of genres by preserving the primacy of historical landscape, where the figures, often heroes of Classical antiquity, are more important than the landscape background. Boime suggests that knowledge of a manuscript of Deperthes’s work influenced the Académie des Beaux-Arts towards instituting a Prix de Rome for historical landscape in ...

Article

Leah Lipton

(b Perth Amboy, NJ, Feb 18, 1766; d New York, Sept 28, 1839).

American painter, writer and Playwright. After working in England with Benjamin West between 1784 and 1787, Dunlap concentrated primarily on the theatre for the next 20 years. His two main interests are documented in his large Portrait of the Artist Showing his Picture of Hamlet to his Parents (1788; New York, NY Hist. Soc.). He wrote more than 30 plays and was called by some the ‘father of American drama’. He was the director and manager of the Park Theatre in New York from 1797 until its bankruptcy in 1805 and again, in its revived form, from 1806 to 1811. He began to paint miniatures to support his family in 1805 and travelled the East Coast of America as an itinerant artist. By 1817 he had become, in his own words, ‘permanently a painter’.

Dunlap always lived on the verge of poverty. To increase his income, he produced a large showpiece ...

Article

M. Dolores Jiménez-Blanco

(b Rome, c. 1770; d Paris, Aug 16, 1829).

Spanish painter and art historian. He acquired his artistic training through study trips in Italy, France and England, and around 1800 he worked as a copier in the Academia de San Fernando in Madrid. After the Peninsular War (1808–13) he was appointed court painter by King Ferdinand VII (25 Feb 1816). However, his importance in the history of Spanish art lies more in his role as art historian than in that of painter. His publications reveal an outstanding knowledge of the schools of art. The first is of special interest: as keeper of the Museo de Pinturas in Madrid (now the Museo del Prado) he wrote the first catalogue of the museum, indeed of any museum in Spain, in 1819, with subsequent editions in 1821, 1823, 1824 and 1828. In 1822 he published his Ensayo sobre las diferentes escuelas de pintura, an introductory manual for painting enthusiasts. Another work, unpublished, is preserved in the Museo Lázaro Galdiano in Madrid and bears the title ...

Article