José Luis Morales y Marín
(b Madrid, Sept 27, 1845; d Madrid, Jan 5, 1912).
Spanish writer, painter and collector. After pursuing a political career and taking a doctorate in civil and canon law, he dedicated himself to writing on art and produced important studies on Diego Velázquez (1898), Joaquín Sorolla y Bastida (1901) and other artists. He travelled extensively and enthusiastically in Europe (France, Belgium, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Italy, Germany, England and elsewhere), studying especially the different national schools of painting. On his travels he also painted landscapes. After working for some time as a copyist in the Museo del Prado, Beruete decided in 1873 to concentrate his efforts on painting and on learning to perfect his craft. He enrolled at the Escuela Superior de Bellas Artes de S Fernando in Madrid and also studied at the studio of Carlos de Haes. Beruete was among the founders of the Institución Libre de Enseñanza, and with its members, and with Carlos de Haes, he made several study trips abroad. In Paris he came to know the painting of the Barbizon school, and in Belgium he assimilated the teaching of the generation of landscape artists who had adopted a form of Realism. The fundamental constants of the Spanish pictorial tradition, however, especially the sketching style typical of Velázquez and Francisco de Goya, became the starting-point for Beruete’s own style, enabling him to record his response to landscape, impressions of light and rural settings. Beruete’s achievement was acknowledged by various national and international awards....
Simonetta Prosperi Valenti Rodinò
(b Busto Arsizio, Nov 11, 1777; d Milan, Dec 15, 1815).
Italian painter, collector and writer. He studied painting at the Accademia di Brera in Milan. Between 1785 and 1801 he lived in Rome, where he met such Neo-classical artists as Angelica Kauffman and Marianna Dionigi (1756–1826) as well as writers, scholars and archaeologists, notably Jean-Baptiste Séroux d’Agincourt, Giovanni Gherardo de Rossi (1754–1827) and Ennio Quirino Visconti. While in Rome he studied Antique and Renaissance works, making copies of the statues in the Museo Pio-Clementino and the frescoes by Raphael and Michelangelo in the Vatican, also furthering his studies of the nude in the Accademia di Domenico Conti and making anatomical drawings of corpses in the Ospedale della Consolazione. On his return to Milan in 1801 he became secretary to the Accademia di Brera, a post he held until 1807. During this period he devoted all his efforts to the restructuring of the Brera, providing it with new statutes and a major library and also founding the adjoining art gallery. He prevented numerous works from being smuggled abroad or dispersed and was responsible for their inclusion in the ...
Gabriel P. Weisberg
(b Paris, Feb 11, 1830; d Parays, Tarn-et-Garonne, June 3, 1890).
French critic, collector and etcher. He studied drawing and painting before becoming art critic of the Gazette des Beaux-Arts in 1859. His extensive articles examined such issues as the etching revival (see Etching, §II, 4), modernization of the industrial arts, the cult of Japonisme and Impressionism. With his notices in the newspaper Le Rappel (1869–71) and the avant-garde journal La Renaissance littéraire et artistique (1871–2), the periodical of the emerging Symbolist poets, Burty passionately espoused the taste for Japanese art and culture and coined the term Japonisme in 1872. His apartment, which contained a vast collection of Japanese works of art, attracted many collectors also fascinated by Japan, including Edmond de Goncourt, Félix Bracquemond and Edgar Degas. Burty’s meetings and his collection and staunch advocacy of Japonisme influenced many, including his Impressionist friends, in whose compositions the subtle assimilation of Japanese print design is evident. The marriage of Burty’s daughter Madeleine to the entrepreneur ...
Italian family of jewellers, collectors and writers. The firm founded in Rome by (1) Fortunato Pio Castellani shortly after 1820 and expanded by his sons (2) Alessandro Castellani and (3) Augusto Castellani was foremost in reviving period style in jewellery design. Their reputation was established in Rome by the mid-19th century, and they were renowned as antiquarians as much as jewellers and were consulted by museums in London, Paris and Vienna. After 1860 the Castellani opened shops in Paris and Naples; from 1862 until 1884 they exhibited regularly at international exhibitions, including the International Exhibition of 1862 in London, and their work remained virtually unaffected by subsequent stylistic developments. Designs were closely inspired by, and in some cases reproduced, antique and medieval pieces, often from their own considerable study collection. They were widely imitated throughout England, France, Italy and the USA. Their jewellery is notable for its use of gold; the family perfected processes for simulating the techniques of filigree and granulation used in antique jewellery. A variety of chainwork and hinged pieces with repoussé decoration are characteristic of the firm. Among their most popular designs were pieces ornamented with fine glass mosaic inspired by Byzantine jewellery (e.g. bracelet with white and gold mosaic, ...
[pseud. Summerly, Felix]
(b Bath, July 15, 1808; d London, April 18, 1882).
English art administrator, industrial designer and museum director. His art education began at the age of 15, when he learnt watercolour technique from David Cox and perspective drawing from Charles Wild (1781–1835). In 1826 Cole met the philosopher John Stuart Mill, under whose influence he became a lifelong Benthamite; Cole’s reform of English design was determined by his commitment to Utilitarianism.
In 1823 Cole began working for the Public Record Office. His complaints about its inefficiency led to the reform of the Record Commission, of which he became Assistant Keeper in 1838. In the same year he was involved in the introduction of the Penny Post. In 1843 he commissioned John Callcott Horsley to design the first commercial Christmas card. He also wrote children’s books and tourist guides under the name Felix Summerly, a pseudonym he had already used for articles and pamphlets.
In 1846 Cole designed the Felix Summerly Tea Service, produced by ...
E. A. Christensen
(b Laxfield, Suffolk, Oct 24, 1787; d London, Oct 13, 1847).
British architect, designer, writer and collector. He trained as a builder and from 1814 worked independently as an architect in London, his practice consisting mainly of church restorations. He published many books on design and architecture: his designs for ornamental metalwork appeared as Ornamental Metal Worker’s Director (1823), and his lithographs of Gothic mouldings, finials and other details, published as Working Drawings of Gothic Ornaments (), provided architects with models for Gothic capitals and carvings; his publications on architecture include Westminster Hall (1822) and Plans…of the Chapel of King Henry the Seventh (1822–9).
During the 1840s Cottingham designed a variety of pieces of Gothic furniture for his friend, John Harrison of Snelston Hall, Derbys, some of which incorporated fragments of authentic Gothic carving. His design (London, V&A) for a drawing-room cabinet for Snelston Hall, although not strictly archaeological, was based on existing examples of Gothic detailing. Cottingham’s discovery of a series of medieval tiles in the Chapter House at Westminster Abbey stimulated a revival of encaustic tiles, subsequently produced by such firms as Minton; he designed such tiles for ...
(b Milan, Sept 8, 1799; d Mantua, Jan 26, 1872).
Italian critic, historian and draughtsman. He showed a natural talent for painting at an early age and studied at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Milan, attending Carlo Botticelli’s art history courses and studying painting with Agostino Comerio (1784–1829). In 1824–5 he attended Tommaso Minardi’s drawing classes in Rome. In 1827 he illustrated the Monumenti di pittura e scultura trascelti in Mantova e nel territorio, and in 1828 the Collezione di ritratti di celebri mantovani, disegnati dal d’Arco e incisi per la maggior parte da Lanfranco Puzzi. He was also responsible for the drawings in his Dipinti nuovamente scoperti di invenzione di Giulio Romano (1832) and collaborated on the illustrations for Giovanni Labus’s Museo della R. Accademia di Mantova (Mantua, 1829–37). Conscious of his artistic shortcomings, thereafter he devoted himself to art criticism and historical research. In 1838, at his own expense, he published and partly illustrated his important monograph ...
(b Paris, May 7, 1869; d Paris, Nov 9, 1927).
French collector, writer and etcher. He began to collect prints at the age of 13 and rapidly established a reputation as a connoisseur and expert, particularly in the field of modern prints. His principal work is the 31-volume series Le Peintre-graveur illustré (Paris, 1906–30); his other publications include works on 19th- and 20th-century prints and c. 500 auction-room catalogues. His own etchings were exhibited at the Salons of 1888 and 1897, and he was an officer of the Société des Peintres-graveurs Français and the Société pour l’Etude de la Gravure Française. His first print collection was sold at auction in 1890, the second in Paris, 13–15 June 1928, comprising 404 lots of modern prints.with N. A. Hazard: Catalogue raisonné de l’oeuvre lithographié de H. Daumier (Paris, 1904) Le Peintre-graveur illustré, 31 vols (Paris, 1906–30) Manuel de l’amateur d’estampes du XVIII siècle (Paris, 1910) Manuel de l’amateur d’estampes des XIX et XX siècles...