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Article

Chikuto  

Japanese, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1776; died 1853.

Painter. Landscapes, animals.

Nanga (literati) school.

Chikuto was the son of a doctor in Nagoya. At the age of 15, he became the protégé of the rich businessman and collector Kamiya Ten’yu, who was also from Nagoya and through whom he met many artists and studied Chinese pictorial techniques. It was through Tenyu that Chikuto made the acquaintance of the painter Yamamoto Baiitsu (...

Article

Elizabeth F. Bennett

[ Wu Ta-ch’eng ; ming Dashun ; zi Zhijing, Qingqing ; hao Hengxian, Kezhai ]

(b Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, June 6, 1835; d March 6, 1902).

Chinese calligrapher, epigrapher and collector . Born into a rich and cultured merchant family, he entered the district school at 16 and at 17 began to study seal script (zhuanshu) under Chen Huan (1786–1863). He received his jinshi degree in 1868 and became a scholar at the Hanlin Academy in Beijing, followed by two years at the Suzhou Provincial Printing Office. In succeeding years, he distinguished himself as an army officer, diplomat and civil servant. He became Governor of Guangdong Province in 1887 and of Hunan in 1892, interrupted by a period as director-general of the conservancy of the Yellow River and the Grand Canal and followed by his directorship of the Longmen Academy in Shanghai in 1898.

Wu amassed a large collection of antiquities. He became renowned as an interpreter of written characters used before the Qin period (221–206 bc) and completed a dictionary of seal characters, the ...

Article

Chinese, 19th century, male.

Active in the second third of the 19th century.

Painter.

Critic, collector, painter and official, Hua Yilun drew his inspiration from Wang Yuanqi (1642-1715). At the same time, to free himself from formulaic academicism, he also travelled widely to rediscover the original source that had inspired the ancients; nature itself. In his theoretical work, the ...

Article

Kyosai  

Japanese, 19th century, male.

Born 18 May 1831, in Furukawa; died 25 April 1889, in Tokyo.

Painter.

Also known as Kawanabe, Kyosai was a pupil of Utagawa Kuniyoshi and the first collector of the work of his master and friend. He painted large decorative works, sometimes of European inspiration, and worked mainly in Tokyo....

Article

Chinese, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1766, in Xiushui (Zhejiang); died 1852.

Painter.

Wen Ding was an expert, a collector and a painter. He painted landscapes, pine trees and stones in the style of Wen Zhengming (1470-1559).

Article

Chinese, 19th century, male.

Born 1835, in Jiangsu; died 1902.

Painter, draughtsman, calligrapher. Landscapes.

Wu Dacheng was a painter, calligrapher, archaeologist and collector and a pupil of Tao-Shaoyuan.

New York, 2 June 1988: Landscape in the Style of Huang He Shanqiao (ink on paper...

Article

Chinese, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1768, in Jiaxing (Zhejiang); died 1848.

Painter, draughtsman, calligrapher.

Zhang Tingji was also a famous collector of paintings and antiques.

New York, 25 Nov 1991: Calligraphy (ink on paper, two stanzas in seal script, 36¼ × 7¾ ins/92.1 × 19.7 cm) ...

Article

Elizabeth F. Bennett

[Lo Chen-yü; zi Xuetang; hao Chensuntang]

(b Huaian, Jiangsu Province, Aug 3, 1866; d Lüshun, Liaoning Province, June 19, 1940).

Chinese writer, collector and calligrapher. He is particularly well known for his studies of oracle bone script (jiagu wen), the earliest Chinese writing, so called because it was found on animal bones and shells used for divination (see China, People’s Republic of §IV 2., (i), (a)). Luo’s friend Wang Yirong (1845–1900) and Liu E (1857–1909) were the first to collect the bones, which they discovered and rescued from pharmacists, who ground them up for medical prescriptions. The importance of oracle bones for early Chinese history was more widely recognized in 1899 after large quantities of them were unearthed at the Yinxu site in Anyang, Henan Province. Sun Yirang (1848–1908), Wang Guowei (1867–1927) and Luo investigated the texts on the oracle bones, and Luo dated them to the latter part of the Shang period (c. 1600–c. 1050...