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Article

Arnige  

Ian Alsop and Kashinath Tamot

[Chin. Anige; A-ni-ke; A-ni-ko; Nepalese: Arnike]

(b c. 1244; d c. 1306).

Nepalese sculptor, architect, and painter who worked in Tibet and China. A Newar from the Kathmandu Valley, Anige is now honoured in his native land as Nepal’s most famous artist of early times. He left his home at the age of 17 or 18, joining the myriads of wandering Newar artists who served the courts of the great lamas and emperors of Tibet and China. He so impressed his patrons at the court of the Mongol Yuan dynasty (1279–1368) that he eventually rose to a position of prominence as the director of the imperial workshops at the capital of Dadu, now Beijing.

No trace of Anige’s life and works has survived in Nepal, but this is not surprising given the dearth of historical records (as is the case throughout the Indian subcontinent), and the fact that artists were generally anonymous. Further, as Anige left the valley at a young age, his artistic distinction was almost entirely achieved in foreign lands....

Article

Susan Pares

[Pak Sŏ-bo]

(b1931).

Korean painter and teacher. He graduated in 1954 from the Fine Arts College, Hong’ik University, Seoul, and exhibited in Korea, East and South-east Asia, the USA, Europe and elsewhere. He is regarded as a leader of Korean modernism. Park has used a variety of techniques. Typical of his Art informel stage is Painting No. 1 (1957; oil on canvas, priv. col., see Young-na Kim, p. 177), where paint was splashed on to the canvas. In his ‘white’ paintings, thin layers of gesso were applied over a period of time, then graphite and gesso were applied alternately to build up a surface. In 1989 he began to use tak (mulberry bark paper), laid in three layers on canvas, sealed with gesso and overlaid with acrylic paint. Further sheets of paper, soaked in acrylic medium or Korean ink, were then laid, and the surface was manipulated with the fingers or an implement. In working or marking the surface Park’s intention was to help the medium to express itself by adding nothing more than a sign of his involvement, which he termed his ‘écriture’; one of his works is titled simply ...

Article

Patrick Conner

(b London, Jan 7, 1774; d Macao, May 30, 1852).

English painter. Although long rumoured to be Irish, Chinnery was brought up in London, where he showed a precocious talent as a portrait painter in the traditions of Romney and Cosway. His grandfather, the calligrapher William Chinnery sr, was the author of Writing and Drawing Made Easy, Amusing and Instructive (London, 1750); his father, William jr, was also a writing master, and exhibited portraits at the Free Society of Artists. George entered the Royal Academy Schools in 1792, and by 1795 had exhibited 20 portraits at the Academy.

In 1796 Chinnery moved to Dublin. There he married his landlord’s daughter, Marianne Vigne, who gave birth to his two legitimate children. He was active in the Royal Dublin Society and in 1798 was Secretary and Treasurer of its Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture. He experimented in several styles and media, to considerable critical acclaim; in July 1801 he received a silver palette ‘in Testimony of his Exertions in promoting the Fine Arts in Ireland’ … from ‘the Artists of Dublin’....

Article

Chinese, 20th century, male.

Born c. 1910, in Eng Choon (Hokkin); died 1995.

Painter.

Kah Yeow Lee, an artist well known in Southeast Asia, was born into an old family from Fujian province in China. His father was also an artist. He started his artistic training young, first at Beijing university, where he worked with Chen Hengke, Ho Lizhi, Chen Banding and Hu Beiheng, and then at the art college of Shanghai, where he learned Western painting techniques with Liu Haisu. He then settled in Malaysia as an art teacher, continuing his study of the ancient masters from the Tang dynasty (618-906) to the Qing (...

Article

Michael Curschmann

The medieval term mappa mundi (also forma mundi, historia/istoire) covers a broad array of maps of the world of which roughly 1100 survive. These have resisted systematic classification, but the clearly dominant type is one that aims at comprehensively symbolistic representation. Its early, schematic form is a disc composed of three continents surrounded and separated from one another by water (“T-O Map”) and associated with the three sons of Noah: Asia (Shem) occupies all of the upper half, Europe (Japhet) to the left and Africa (Ham) to the right share the lower half. Quadripartite cartographic schemes included the antipodes as a fourth continent, but the tripartite model was adopted by the large majority of the more developed world maps in use from the 11th century on and—with important variations—well into the Renaissance. While details were added as available space permitted, the Mediterranean continued to serve as the vertical axis and, with diminishing clarity, the rivers Don and Nile as the horizontal one. The map also continues to be ‘oriented’ towards Asia, where paradise sits at the very top. A circular ocean forms the perimeter and not infrequently the city of Jerusalem constitutes its centre....

Article

Susan Pares

[ Yun Myŏng-no ]

(b 1936).

Korean painter, printmaker and teacher . He graduated in 1960 from the College of Fine Arts, Seoul National University, and studied in 1969–70 in New York. He has exhibited in Korea, East, South and South-east Asia, North and South America, Western and Eastern Europe and New Zealand. Paintings in the Art informel style in the late 1950s–early 1960s were succeeded by his Ruler series of prints. Youn was an early experimenter in modern printmaking in Korea. His Cracks series, initiated in the mid-1970s, examined the effect of cracking on the surface of generally white pigment. In the Ollejit series of the 1980s drawing on childhood memories of simple objects, the surface is covered repeatedly with short, deliberate strokes. The After Ollejit and Anonymous Land series of paintings of the 1990s convey more violent feeling, expressed through strong brushstrokes, heavy colours and thickly applied paint. Youn works in acrylic, oil colour and oil stick, and in India ink on wood, cotton and canvas. He also produces lithographs and ceramic tiles....

Article

Britta Erickson

(b Jincheng, Liaoning Province, Nov 17, 1963).

Chinese painter. In 1988 he graduated from the Oil Painting Department of the Central Academy of Fine Arts, Beijing. He returned as a graduate student (1995–6) and remained as a professor. Like others who studied oil painting in China in the 1980s, he received a thorough training in realism. For decades leading up to the end of the Cultural Revolution in 1976, the government had promoted Socialist Realism as one of the few artistic styles permissible, and after 1976 realism continued to be the officially sanctioned mode of oil painting. Many young artists rebelled against such constraints and abandoned realism for abstraction or conceptual art. Others such as Liu found ways to adapt their training to a personal style capable of expressing a personal point of view. At the end of the 1980s, Liu was hailed as the central figure in the ‘New Generation’ group of figurative painters....