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(b Montreal, July 4, 1916; d Ile-aux-Grues, Canada, March 12, 2002).

Canadian painter, tapestry designer and weaver. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Montreal. In 1941 he met Paul-Emile Borduas, who introduced him to Surrealism, and Leduc then experimented with automatism. He became one of Automatistes, Les and his painting in the later 1940s became abstract and more gestural, as in Napoleon’s Last Campaign (1946; artist’s col., see 1970 exh. cat., pl. 6). In 1946 he exhibited at the first Automatistes show in the Rue Amherst and in 1947 at the second in the Rue Sherbrooke. He left Montreal for Paris that year and on his arrival had a two-man show with Jean-Paul Riopelle at the Galerie du Luxembourg. While in Paris he rebelled against the orthodox Surrealism centred on André Breton and sent a virulently critical letter to Breton. Towards the end of his stay in Paris he became influenced by Jean Bazaine and more conscious of order in his works....

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Lourdes Font

(b Paris, 1902; d Paris March 14, 1955).

French fashion designer (see figs 1 and 2 ). From 1925 to 1953, Rochas was an innovator in Paris fashion. In the1930s he was known for architectural suits and coats, bold graphic patterns and Surrealist details, and in the post-war period for romantic designs inspired by the 19th century.

Rochas founded his Paris couture house in 1925, and within two years copies of his modern and practical daywear were sold in New York City department stores. In 1929 he was among those leading the way toward a new silhouette by raising waistlines and lowering hemlines. In 1931 he was inspired, like Elsa Schiaparelli , by the South-east Asian architecture and Balinese dancers at the Exposition Coloniale in Paris. By the end of the year he had shown broader shoulders and fuller sleeves in his collections. He continued the South-east Asian theme with his ‘Angkor’ coat of 1934, which had peaked shoulders, sleeves forming sharp points at the elbow and a silver-plated belt shaped like a palm frond. Other designs had flanges at the neckline and shoulders that projected from the body like cantilevered walls (...