French priest, philosopher and writer. He entered the Society of Jesus in 1693, studied theology in Paris, then philosophy at the Collège de Clermont, and he was ordained a priest in 1706. He was a great scholar, who knew Greek, Latin and Hebrew; he devoted himself to philosophical research and poetry, at the same time teaching for the Society of Jesus in numerous institutions of learning in France. A staunch Cartesian, Père André inevitably incurred the hostility of the Society, which was wedded to Scholastic doctrines and Aristotelian philosophy. His innovative philosophical opinions and his suspect theology caused him to suffer various penalties, including imprisonment (...
French, 18th century, male.
Born 1724, in Paris; died 13 April 1806, in Paris.
Painter, draughtsman, writer and administrator. Religious subjects, portraits, animals, still-lifes (including flowers, fruit, game), cats, decorative motifs.
Jean-Jacques Bachelier was a pupil of Jean-Baptiste Pierre. He later became the director of painting at the Manufacture de Sèvres (Sèvres Porcelaine Factory), and founded the École Royale Gratuite de Dessin, an independent school of industrial arts, where he worked very successfully as a painter of flowers and still-lifes. The school, intended for young artisans aspiring to make a living in the applied arts, taught ornamental design, architecture, and the drawing of the human figure, animals and plants. He also tried his hand at biblical subjects. His works include: ...
British, 18th – 19th century, male.
Born 28 November 1757, in London, United Kingdom; died 12 August 1827, in London.
Painter, draughtsman, engraver, illustrator, poet. Religious subjects, figure compositions.
William Blake was the son of a draper. He showed a strong artistic tendency from an early age and, at the age of 10, started to study drawing at Henry Par’s Academy in the Strand. He learnt engraving under Ryland and was then apprenticed to James Basire. During his seven years with Basire (1772–1779), Blake was made to copy the sculptures of Westminster Abbey and of London’s old churches, thus stimulating his fascination with Gothic art. He studied briefly at the Royal Academy in 1779, where he made friends with Barry, Fuseli, Mortimer, Flaxman, and Stodhart. While there, his studies concentrated on Michelangelo....
(b Castelnau-de-Brassac, Tarn, 3 or 4 May 1736; d Paris, 28 March 1806). French writer. He was the son of a lawyer; having been a pupil of the Jesuits, he joined that Order in 1752 but was never ordained priest. He became in his turn a teacher at Jesuit colleges, first at Albi and then at Tournon. When in ...
Italian, 17th – 18th century, male.
Born 28 June 1674, in Rome; died 5 March 1755, in Rome.
Painter, engraver, musician, scholar. Religious subjects, portraits.
Pierleone Ghezzi was the son and pupil of Giuseppe Ghezzi. He was commissioned by Pope Benedict XIV, together with L. Garzi, F. Trevisani and B. Luti, to paint, among other things, a series of ...
German philosopher. He was the first of the philosophers influenced by Johann Christian von Wolff (1679–1754) to establish a place in Wolff’s system for the fine arts. He attended the universities of Königsberg and Leipzig in the early 1720s, where he wrote theses on Wolffian topics. In ...
German philosopher and theologian. After travels that included sojourns in London and Riga, he based himself in his native city from 1759, occupying minor posts and acting as a Christian gadfly to the German Enlightenment. He separated himself from Kant with the esoteric Sokratische Denkwürdigkeiten...
French art historian and writer. He began as a captain in the service of Duke Christian Ludwig of Mecklenburg (d 1756). He mastered numerous languages and travelled in Germany, Spain, Portugal and Italy. Living the life of an adventurer, he was frequently in debt, for which he was imprisoned in ...
German art scholar and collector. At school in Lübeck he became acquainted with the ideas of Leibniz and Christian Wolff; from 1724 he studied law and literature in Leipzig. There he developed an interest in the Enlightenment thinking of Johann Christoph Gottsched and in art, particularly the many private collections. In ...
German cabinetmaker. By 1770 he was established as a master cabinetmaker in Leipzig. An important early patron was the art dealer Karl Christian Heinrich Rost (1742–98), who commissioned furniture closely based on French and English models. In 1788 Hoffman obtained a loan to extend his business in Leipzig and a subsidiary workshop at Eilenburg; his total workforce was 16 tradesmen. In ...